Tips on how to develop Cacti and Succulents

How to grow Cacti and Succulents

Succulent vegetation are the camels of the vegetable world, storing up meals and water for use not on a wet day, however throughout a interval of extended drought. This will final for a couple of weeks or, in excessive instances, vegetation have survived with out rainfall for over a yr. This water will be saved in both the leaves or the stems of the vegetation, relying on the sort.

This provides rise to 2 distinct sorts of succulent plant, leaf succulents and stem succulents. The stem succulents often haven’t any leaves (besides generally very small ones on younger progress, quickly falling off), and the inexperienced tissue of the stems takes over the work of the leaves to fabricate the meals. With out leaves, the vegetation can cut back a lot of the water loss. The stems are often very thick and stuffed with water storage tissue, and are largely both cylindrical or spherical in form, generally being deeply ribbed. The ribs allow the plant to develop or contract because it absorbs or loses water.

Leaf succulents have plump, rounded leaves stuffed with water storage tissue. They’re usually coated with wax, meal or hairs, serving to to scale back water loss from their surfaces. Typically these succulents have fleshy stems as properly, however the leaves play a very powerful half in meals manufacture.

The cacti, all belonging to 1 household, are the preferred group of succulent vegetation, however many different plant households have succulent members. Among the many households whose succulent species are grown are the Crassulaceae, Aizoaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Liliaceae, and Agavaceae.


The cactus household is native to America; vegetation present in Europe and elsewhere have been launched at a while prior to now. There are three distinct sorts of plant, the pereskias, the epiphytes and the desert cacti, and these require completely different remedy due to their differing ‘house’ situations. Apart from the pereskias, they’re stem succulents, having both no leaves or small short-term ones. Cacti should not all spiny vegetation, some being strongly armed whereas others are fairly spineless. All cacti have areoles, small pincushion-like constructions scattered over the stems. Spines, when current, off-shoots, and branches come from these areoles. That is the way in which to differentiate a cactus from one other stem succulent, comparable to a euphorbia, which doesn’t have areoles. Additionally all cactus flowers have the identical normal design, whereas these of different succulents differ enormously between the varied households.


The pereskias should have a short point out right here, as they’re so completely different from different cacti. They’re obtainable from the specialist nurseries, however not prone to be discovered within the native florist. They’re fascinating in that they’re the one cacti which aren’t actually succulents, and have regular leaves, fairly like these of a privet, however possess spines and, in fact, the attribute areoles. The flowers bear a superficial resemblance to the wild rose. They’re bushes and climbers from the tropical areas of north and central America, the place they’re used as hedging vegetation, and will be grown as pot vegetation, however to be actually profitable they should be bedded out in a big greenhouse, the place they’ll scramble up a wall or over a help. They want a winter temperature of about 50°F ( 10°C) and to be saved moist all of the yr spherical. Most growers regard them as curiosities, and they aren’t quite common in collections.

Epiphytic Cacti

In contrast, the epiphytes are grown on this nation very generally, many being offered as florists’ vegetation. Of their native South American tropical rain forests, the epiphytic cacti are discovered rising within the particles caught up within the branches of timber. They develop among the many different epiphytes, ferns, bromeliads, and orchids, which festoon the timber in these tropical areas. Though there isn’t a scarcity of water the place the vegetation are discovered, the pockets of humus they’re rising in dry out in a short time. Epiphytic cacti haven’t any leaves, however flattened, barely succulent stems, generally incorrectly referred to as ‘leaves’.

These stems could encompass brief segments, as within the acquainted ‘Christmas cactus’ (schlumbergera), the flowers showing on the ends of the segments, or the stems could also be lengthy and strap-like, as within the epiphyllums. On this latter, the flowers are often carried on the perimeters of the stems. Owing to the fantastic thing about their flowers, epiphyllums have obtained a variety of consideration from horticulturists. There are huge numbers of lovely hybrids available on the market, in all colours besides blue, whereas the wild species should not usually grown as greenhouse vegetation owing to their giant measurement and the problem of flowering them in cultivation. These hybrid epiphyllums, along with the short-stemmed rhipsalidopsis and schlumbergeras are those on this group most frequently grown as pot vegetation. All require the identical primary remedy.

They want a very good, porous soil and a compost of equal components loam, peatmoss or leaf mildew, decayed cow manure and sand, plus some charcoal is appropriate. Leaf mildew is good if it may be obtained because it extra intently resembles the pure soil of the forests. The soilless composts are additionally very appropriate for these and different cacti, however for the epiphytes, the lime-free kind of compost is greatest. It helps so as to add a teaspoon of bonemeal to every pot of compost. Re-potting needs to be accomplished yearly. These cacti will survive winter temperatures as little as 41°F (5°C), however flower significantly better if saved a bit of hotter. They need to be saved moist all of the yr spherical. In reality, it’s best to overlook that they’re cacti and deal with them as regular pot vegetation. When in bud, epiphytes will be fed each two weeks with a tomato-type potassium fertilizer.

As a result of these epiphytic cacti develop amongst timber, they don’t want full daylight. They make very profitable home vegetation if grown on an east-facing window-ledge, the place they’ll obtain the early morning solar, however are in shade throughout the warmth of the day. They develop quickly, and when a plant outgrows a 6-in. pot, it needs to be re-started. A stem is lower from an epiphyllum or a couple of segments from the schlumbergeras and rhipsalidopsis. The chopping is allowed to dry for 2 or three days after which potted up. This drying interval for cactus and different succulent cuttings is all the time carried out to forestall rot from spreading into the fleshy stems. As they’re succulents, they don’t wilt throughout this era as different vegetation would. The perfect time of the yr for taking cuttings is April — Could, though it’s fairly potential at any time throughout spring and summer season.

Desert Cacti The desert cacti are the spiny tall or spherical vegetation that we affiliate with the American deserts. Truly many are discovered rising on rocky mountain sides and in grassy areas, in addition to within the sandy areas of Mexico and South America. All of them want the utmost quantity of daylight to flourish and flower freely. For that reason they don’t make such good home vegetation because the epiphytes. If a greenhouse will not be out there, they need to be saved on a south-facing window sill, and ideally stood open air from Could to September.

A minimal winter temperature of 4.1°F (5°C) is satisfactory for many desert cacti. A well-drained compost is important. One containing 2 components loam, 2 components peatmoss, 2 components sand, 2 components damaged crocks, plus some charcoal and 1 pint bonemeal per bushel of combine, is appropriate. Alternatively, a soilless compost could also be used. For the reason that meals content material of the soil doesn’t final endlessly, the vegetation needs to be repotted yearly.

Many individuals appear to assume that cacti want no water! That is removed from the reality, though they’ll actually survive a interval of dryness (in spite of everything they’re tailored to do exactly this). Because of this it isn’t essential to fret an excessive amount of when you are on trip (though seedlings will endure). However with out water, they’ll simply survive, not develop, and the vegetation needs to be saved roughly regularly moist between April and October.

The watering needs to be decreased after this and they need to be left dry throughout December and January, if saved in a greenhouse. Watering will be restarted steadily as the sunshine improves in February. If the vegetation are wintered in a heated home with a really dry ambiance, extra water will likely be wanted throughout winter to forestall extreme shrivelling. Indoors, the perfect winter spot is an unheated room, however this will likely not all the time be potential. The explanation for maintaining them dry right now is that in the event that they develop within the poor gentle of winter, they’re prone to change into distorted and should properly rot the next yr. Additionally, flowering could be very a lot affected by the earlier winter’s remedy.

Desert cacti are largely very simply reproduced from cuttings. Some vegetation type offsets which will be eliminated and potted up, after the same old few days drying interval. Some clustering vegetation could have rooted ‘pups’ (offsets) across the base of the mum or dad; these will be ‘eliminated and potted up immediately. If the plant doesn’t type offsets, a bit of stem will be lower off and potted up after drying for a couple of week. The bottom of the mum or dad plant will be saved as it’s going to usually sprout once more, forming quite a lot of offsets across the lower prime. The perfect time to do all that is, as earlier than, between April and June.

Different Succulents

As talked about earlier, the opposite succulents fall into a number of completely different households, and for the reason that cultivation varies considerably for every, it’s best to provide a short description of them. Crassulaceae This household could be very giant, consisting of leaf succulents with virtually world-wide distribution. Probably the most lovely family members are the echeverias of the New World and the crassulas of South Africa. Different engaging vegetation are the aeoniums and sedums, with plump, usually extremely coloured leaves, organized in rosettes. All needs to be saved barely moist all of the yr spherical. Seed of those vegetation is troublesome to acquire, however they’ll largely be simply reproduced from cuttings which want little or no drying earlier than potting up. Some species may even be grown from leaves, simply laid on the soil, when they’ll root, and ship out new shoots.

Aizoaceae It is a household of leaf succulents discovered primarily in Africa. They fluctuate from small shrubs to vegetation about r in. excessive consisting of 1 pair of very succulent leaves. One of many essential traits of this group is that almost all of them have distinct resting intervals, comparable to the dry season of their native lands. Throughout this era, from about October to March, they should be saved utterly dry. The outdated leaves will steadily shrivel away. Watering shouldn’t be re-started till the brand new leaves seem in spring. Common vegetation are the autumn rising conophytums, glottiphyllums and pleiospilos and the summer season rising lithops and faucarias. This group is kind of simply raised from seed, or heads of clustering vegetation could also be eliminated, dried for a couple of days and potted up. June to July is an effective time for this.


This accommodates just one group, the euphorbias, generally grown, however that is an immense group of world-wide distribution, lots of which aren’t succulents. The succulent vegetation are mostly discovered on the African continent. These are stem succulents, though throughout the rising interval some species produce leaves on the brand new progress. Euphorbias fluctuate enormously in measurement, some reaching tree-like proportions, intently resembling the large cacti. Others are small, clustering vegetation just a few inches excessive. All have one factor in frequent, an irritating, generally toxic, milky sap. Euphorbia flowers are often small and insignificant, however usually have a candy lime-like scent. In some species the female and male flowers are on separate vegetation. Euphorbias are troublesome to propagate from cuttings, however could also be readily raised from seed, though it must be recent for fulfillment.

Asclepiadaceae This household accommodates a lot of leafless stem succulents from the dry areas of the Previous World. The place they happen, there are not any bees and the flowers are pollinated by flies. To be engaging to flies, the flowers usually have an disagreeable scent to us. Nevertheless, the flowers are often giant (generally immense) in shades of reddish-brown or yellow, usually coated with hairs. Stapelias are in all probability one of the best identified on this group. We even have duvalias and carallumas. They’re simply raised from seed, which germinates rapidly however tends to damp off equally rapidly. Cuttings could also be taken from June to August. They’re greatest simply laid on the soil and could also be watered after a couple of week. Liliaceae This household accommodates not solely the lily bulbs of our gardens however a bunch of leaf succulent vegetation that are discovered primarily on the African continent. Probably the most fascinating vegetation are the aloes, gasterias and haworthias.

Aloes can attain a big measurement and bear a superficial resemblance to the American agaves, with their lengthy strap-like leaves. There are additionally quite a lot of small vegetation that are very engaging and can survive on a window sill. Aloes have lengthy flower stems, however the rosette doesn’t die after flowering.

Gasterias and haworthias are discovered rising within the shade of grasses and small shrubs of their fatherland. This makes them helpful small vegetation for rising on windowsills or below the greenhouse staging.

All of the vegetation which type clusters could also be reproduced by eradicating offsets. In any other case they should be raised from seed. Agavaceae This final household handled right here, contains yuccas, sansevierias and agaves. It’s the agaves that curiosity the grower of succulents. These are rosette-shaped vegetation with powerful, strap-like leaves. Though many are far too giant for the common grower, there are small species that are perfect for the lounge, as a result of the very powerful leaves allow these vegetation to resist the dry ambiance. Many individuals are accustomed to the big, fairly coarse specimens of Agave americana discovered rising alongside the Mediterranean coast. These vegetation have at a while been launched; the agaves are native to the southern U.S.A., Mexico, Central America, the West Indies, and northern South America.

Agave flowers are borne on stems many ft lengthy, however solely on very outdated specimens, and after flowering, the rosette dies, however by then there are often offsets rising across the base of the plant. These will be eliminated and used for propagation. Agaves are very simply raised from seed.


The cultivation of the opposite succulents is similar to that of the desert cacti; any variations have been talked about. They need to be given loads of water in summer season and saved both dry or barely moist in winter, relying on the place they’re saved. An acceptable compost is that beneficial for a Desert Cacti, except for the Aizoaceae that are higher with fairly extra grit, as much as 50%. All of them want the utmost quantity of daylight, significantly the Aizoaceae, which aren’t actually appropriate as Muse vegetation, however want the sunniest a part of the greenhouse. A minimal winter temperature of 41°F (5°C) is satisfactory for many succulents though the stapelias and different Asclepiadaceae respect a bit of extra.

Elevating from seed Cacti and different succulents will be raised from seed in a lot the identical method as some other greenhouse vegetation. A very good seed compost needs to be used; both a normal or soilless. After completely moistening the compost, the seeds are simply scattered on the floor. The container is positioned in a plastic bag to preserve moisture. A temperature of 7o°-8o°F (21°-27`C) is required for germination. If a propagator is out there, early spring is one of the best time to sow, in any other case it’s essential to attend till later when the climate warms up.

Pests and illnesses

Cacti and different succuments don’t endure vastly from these, if they’re fastidiously sorted. Small cotton-wool-like patches point out mealy bugs which will be managed with a malathion spray (however don’t use malathion on Crassulaceae). Brown spots on stems (significantly epiphyllums) are often on account of too low winter temperatures, an excessive amount of nitrogen within the compost, or in any other case defective cultivation. Chilly, damp situations may cause vegetation to rot.

Cacti and Different Succulents

Chamaecereus silvestri (peanut cactus) is discovered rising amongst grass and low bushes in Western Argentina. The brief, prostrate stems are freely branching, and coated with brief, stiff white spines. The stems are pale inexperienced in winter, however flip violet within the sizzling solar. The furry brown buds open in Could or June to giant scarlet flowers. This cactus is hardy if saved dry, and could also be wintered in an unheated chilly body in milder areas. Propagation is especially simple by eradicating branches and rooting them.

Cleistocactus strausii from Bolivia, varieties a tall, silvery column, which can attain a peak of 5 ft. With age it branches from the bottom. The stems are coated with brief white spines. Previous specimens will flower; the slender flowers are purple and are fashioned on the prime of the stem. Nevertheless, if confined to a pot it will likely be a few years earlier than this plant turns into too giant.

Echinocactus grusonii (golden barrel cactus) comes from the deserts of central Mexico. Younger seedlings have tubercles which carry stout golden spines. Because the plant will get bigger the tubercles merge into ribs. Mature specimens of this cactus are a couple of yard throughout, however are very historical because it takes about ten years for a specimen in cultivation to make a diameter of 6 in. The small yellow flowers are seldom produced below house situations on account of poor gentle depth. Echinocereus knippelianus is native to Mexico. The darkish inexperienced, virtually globular stem is about 2 in. throughout. It’s divided by 5 ribs which carry weak, white spines. The pink flowers are produced profusely in Could. It is a slow-growing plant and needs to be watered with care. Like most echinocereus, it’s hardy in gentle areas of the nation if saved dry.

Echinocereus pectinatus is discovered rising in central Mexico. It has a thick stem about 3 in. in diameter, branching from the bottom, and coated very neatly with brief white spines, organized in a comb-like sample. The pink flowers are 3-4 in. throughout and in some specimens are sweetly scented. The flowering interval is about June. It is a sluggish rising cactus which is hardy in winter the place winters are much less extreme if saved dry; it wants significantly good drainage. Echinopsis rhodotricha from Argentina, is an oval plant which within the wild can attain a peak of 32 in. In cultivation it’s going to flower when 6 in. excessive; the long-tubed, white aromatic flowers are about 6 in. lengthy and three in. throughout. They’re produced freely throughout the summer season. They open within the night. The stem is darkish inexperienced, divided into ribs with stout brown spines. It is a quick rising plant and is hardy the place winters are milder if saved dry. The perfect identified is E. eyrieseii, however most specimens available on the market are in all probability hybrids.

Echinopsis ‘Golden Dream’ is a Lobivia x Echinopsis hybrid, a vigorous and hardy plant. It has a globular plant physique, as much as 6 in. throughout, divided into ribs with brief brownish spines. Offsets type across the base. The golden-yellow flowers seem in summer season; they’ve lengthy tubes and are 2 to three in. throughout and barely scented.

Epiphyllum hybrids are examples of the `jungle’ kind of cactus. They make largish vegetation with strap-like stems, usually 2 or 3 ft. lengthy. The flowers are 3 or 4 in. throughout, and seem on the sides of the stems, often opening within the night. Numerous un-named purple hybrids are frequent; among the many named specimens are ‘Attraction’ (purple), ‘Bliss) (orange), `Cooperi’ (white and scented), `Exotique’ (purplish), ‘Gloria’ (orange-red) and ‘Sunburst’ (orange).

Ferocactus acanthodes from southern California makes a cylindrical plant about 9 ft. excessive and three ft. throughout in nature. However such vegetation are very outdated. Seedlings and younger vegetation make pleasant pot vegetation; they’re globular and have vibrant purple spines, however are unlikely to achieve flowering measurement in cultivation. The flowers, when produced are yellow and small for such a big plant, about 2 in. throughout.

Gymnocalycium bruchii is a miniature cactus from Argentina which finally clusters from the bottom. The globular plant physique is split by twelve ribs, bearing neat white spines, overlaying the plant. The pale pink flowers open in Could; these are over i in. lengthy, and for the reason that flowering plant could also be lower than i in. throughout, it usually can’t be seen for flowers. It is a very simple plant to develop and flower.

Gymnocalycium baldianum is typically incorrectly named as G. venturianum. This native of Uruguay varieties a plant physique 3 in. throughout; it has 9 ribs with yellowish spines. Previous specimens type offsets. The flowers, produced in Could, are often deep purple however often specimens are discovered with lovely intense pink flowers.

Gymnocalycium platense, a local of Argentina, is a globular plant, finally 3 in. or extra in diameter. The plant physique is grayish-green and is split into twelve or fourteen ribs. These carry brief whitish spines. White flowers are freely produced in early summer season. It is a very hardy, simply grown plant.

Hamatocactus setispinus is native to Mexico and southern Texas. It’s a globular plant which will be as a lot as 5 in. throughout. Very outdated specimens cluster from the bottom. The stem is darkish inexperienced and divided into 13 ribs. The big satiny flowers are borne on prime of the plant repeatedly by means of the summer season. The petals are deep yellow with a purple base. Once more an easy plant to develop and flower.

Lobivia jajoiana grows in Argentina at altitudes of as much as 10,000 ft. It’s a cylindrical cactus, slow-growing, 2 or 3 in. thick forming a couple of offsets. The plant physique is darkish
inexperienced. The spines on the brand new progress are purple however fade to brownish with age. The deep purple flowers open throughout the summer season; they’re purple with an virtually black throat.

Mammillaria craigii is a local of Mexico. It’s a globular plant, branching with age. Like all mammillarias, the plant physique is roofed with small protuberances (tubercles). These have yellowish-brown spines on their ideas. The small, deep pink bell-like flowers type a circle across the prime of the plant in spring.

Mammillaria spinosissima is a Mexican plant. It is extremely variable; the spines could also be white, yellow, brown or purple. Some of the engaging varieties is the variability sanguinea, with red-tipped spines. The cylindrical stem is darkish inexperienced; it could stay solitary, or cluster. The purplish-red flowers open throughout the summer season, and could also be adopted by vibrant purple berries.

Mammillaria prolifera is a extensively distributed cactus, present in Texas, the West Indies and Mexico. It clusters freely, forming a ‘cushion’ of small heads about 1 in. throughout, coated with advantageous white spines. Creamy flowers seem in late spring and are sometimes adopted by orange-red berries, that are stated to style like strawberries. The heads are knocked off very simply, so the plant should be dealt with fastidiously.

Notocactus haselbergii grows wild in southern Brazil. It varieties a silvery ball, about 4 in. throughout, coated with advantageous white spines. The tomato-red flowers are carried on prime of the plant in early summer season. It is a hardy cactus, simple to develop, however doesn’t flower as a seedling. Flowering-size vegetation are about 21in. throughout.

Notocactus mammulosus, a local of Uruguay and Argentina, varieties a big, globular plant, with stout yellowish spines. With age it varieties offsets from the bottom. White, woolly buds seem on the prime of the plant and open to golden-yellow flowers in early summer season. It flowers profusely and can put up with cool situations. The flowers are self-fertile and enormous portions of darkish brown seeds are fashioned.

Opuntia microdasys is a Mexican plant, and to maintain it unmarked, the winter temperature needs to be at the very least 45°F (7°C). It has flat stem segments (or pads) as much as about 6 in. lengthy. These are dotted with little collections of advantageous barbed hairs (glochids), which can be white, yellow or darkish reddish-brown, relying on the variability. These glochids (attribute of the opuntias) can irritate the pores and skin. This cactus is grown for the fantastic thing about its type and infrequently flowers as a pot-plant. Given a free root run in a greenhouse mattress, it produces yellow flowers in Could.

Opuntia basilaris spreads from northern Mexico to the southern U.S.A. It has pads about 8 in. lengthy of a phenomenal bluish colour, dotted with collections of darkish brown glochids. Branches type from the bottom, producing a big clump. The flowers are purple, nevertheless it hardly ever flowers as a pot plant. There’s a significantly lovely selection, cordata, with heart-shaped, bluish-purple pads. This largely branches from the bottom and stays one or two pads excessive.

Rebutia calliantha var. Krainziana is an instance of the compact, very free-flowering South American rebutias. It’s going to bloom when solely t in. throughout. The globular stems are darkish inexperienced, neatly coated with brief white spines. The big orange flowers are produced in rings across the base of the plant in Could. This is without doubt one of the best of the small cacti to flower and fairly an outdated plant will solely fill a 4-in. pot, however will likely be coated with flowers.

Rebutia miniscula var. violaciflora, from Argentina, is discovered rising about 10,000 ft. above sea stage. It’s a small clustering plant, and can flower when about t in. throughout. It’s a gentle inexperienced in colour with brief ginger spines. The extraordinary magenta pink flowers are produced from the bottom of the plant in April and Could. They’re self-fertile, and if left undisturbed, the plant will finally be surrounded by dozens of little self-sown seedlings.

Rhipsalidopsis rosea is an epiphyte from the forests of southern Brazil. It’s a small shrub about 9 in. excessive, consisting of dozens of stem segments about r in. lengthy, with brief bristles on the ends. The stems fluctuate from inexperienced to darkish purple. The pale pink, bell-shaped flowers, about t in. throughout, cowl the plant throughout Could. After flowering the plant will look shrivelled, however after a couple of weeks it’s going to come into progress once more.

Schlumbergera `Konigers Weihnachtsfreude’ is without doubt one of the many schlumbergera hybrids flowering within the winter which are sometimes referred to as Christmas cactus. It’s an epiphyte and varieties a shrub, changing into pendent with age, and may attain large proportions if not damaged up and restarted. The shiny inexperienced stem segments are as much as about in. lengthy. The extraordinary cerise-pink flowers cowl the plant within the winter months, however not essentially at Christmas. The frequent Christmas cactus, previously often known as Zygocactus truncatus, could be very comparable. It’s now accurately referred to as Schlumbergera `Buckleyi’, although nonetheless usually listed below Zygocactus.

 Different Succulent Crops

Aeonium domesticum (Crassulaceae) The aeoniums are native to the Canary Islands and are virtually hardy. Stunning specimens of those small shrubs could also be present in dry heat areas of the nation. A. domesticum has virtually round leaves coated with advantageous hairs; the yellow flowers are produced in summer season. Aeoniums could also be grown completely as pot vegetation or planted out in a rock backyard for the summer season, and repotted and saved below the greenhouse staging in winter.

Agave filifera (Agavaceae), a local of Mexico, is without doubt one of the smaller rising agaves appropriate for pot cultivation. It varieties a rosette about 2 ft. throughout, consisting of lengthy, slender darkish inexperienced leaves, with white threads alongside the sides. Agaves solely flower when outdated, and the flowering rosette dies. However new ones are fashioned on the base of the outdated plant. The flower stem is over 6 ft. excessive and the flowers are greenish.

Agave parviflora (Agavaceae) is a uncommon plant within the wild, present in a couple of localities in southern Arizona and Mexico solely. It varieties a rosette about 8 in. In diameter, superb for a pot plant. The darkish inexperienced leaves have white markings and marginal threads. The flower spike is about 3 ft. excessive and the flowers are reddish. New rosettes are fashioned on the base of the outdated plant after flowering.

Aloe jucunda (Liliaceae) is a miniature aloe, native to Somalia. The small, flat rosettes are about 4 in. throughout and the brilliant inexperienced leaves have engaging white spots, and small tooth alongside their edges. The pink flowers, carried on an extended stem, open in spring. This aloe clusters freely and the vidual heads can be utilized to begin new vegetation.

Aloe variegata (Liliaceae) (partridge-breasted aloe) a local of Cape Province, South Africa, varieties a stemless rosette, about ft. excessive; the darkish inexperienced leaves have engaging white markings. The plant produces many offsets that are connected to the mum or dad plant by underground stems. The small, orange, bell-shaped flowers are carried on a stout stem in March.

Caralluma europaea (Asclepiadaceae) is discovered round a part of the Mediterranean coast, and in addition in South Africa. The thick leafless stems are grayish-green. It is a summer season rising plant and the tiny flowers are stemless and produced in clusters. They’re yellowish with brownish markings. The seeds are carried in lengthy horn-shaped pods.

Conophytum flavum (Aizoaceae) comes from South Africa. The small plant our bodies are inexperienced and rounded, freely clustering. The intense yellow flowers are often produced in September or October, once they open within the afternoon. The plant needs to be watered when the outdated leaves have shrivelled, often about August, and watering needs to be continued till November.

Conophytum salmonicolor (Aizoaceae) is a local of Namaqualand, South Africa. The inexperienced plant physique is about in. Excessive and consists of a pair of united leaves. The plant clusters fairly readily, and with age, a woody stem turns into evident. Its apricot-colored flowers seem early in June. It needs to be watered when the outdated leaves have shriveled (often across the finish of June) till the tip of October.

Crassula falcata (Crassulaceae) spreads from Cape Province to Natal in South Africa. Due to its putting purple flowers, it’s a well-liked florist’s plant. Ix is giant, rising to about t ft., with bluish-gray leaves. The scarlet flowers are carried on a stout stem. It may be propagated from leaf cuttings.

Crassula teres (Crassulaceae) is a miniature plant from South-West Africa. The broad leaves are intently packed across the stem to type a brief column. With age the plant clusters to type engaging teams. The tiny white flowers are stemless. It needs to be grown in a really open compost, positioned in a sunny place and never over watered.

Duvalia radiata (Asclepiadaceae) is a smallish plant from Africa. The brief, thick stem are prostrate and with out leaves. The reddish-brown flowers are small and fleshy, however the horn-shaped seed pods are giant and filled with quite a few seeds, connected to tiny ‘parachutes’. The rising and flowering interval is summer season.

Echeveria derenbergii (Crassulaceae) (the painted woman) is a dwarf plant from Mexico. It varieties an virtually stemless rosette about 3 in. throughout, which is quickly surrounded by quite a few off-sets. The leaves are plump and pale inexperienced with a white waxy coating. The reddish-yellow flowers open within the spring.

Echeveria hoveyi (Crassulaceae) from Mexico, varieties a short-stemmed unfastened rosette which quickly produces aspect shoots, making a sexy cluster. The lengthy leaves are gray-green with pink and cream stripes. The coloring varies with the seasons; it’s at its most vivid within the spring. Full solar and never an excessive amount of water assist to keep up a very good colour.

Euphorbia aggregata (Euphorbiaceae) from Cape Province, is a shrub about i ft. excessive. It’s a freely branching plant which quickly clusters. The leafless stems are over in. thick. The insignificant flowers are carried on thorn-like stalks which persist lengthy after the flowers have died. This provides the entire plant a ‘spiny’ look, fairly like a clustering cactus. The rising interval is summer season.

Euphorbia beaumieriana (Euphorbiaceae) comes from Morocco, the place it may possibly attain a peak of 6 ft. It’s, nevertheless a lot smaller in pots in collections. It’s a cactus-like plant with ribs and spines. Like all euphorbias, it has milky sap, painful and even harmful within the mouth or eyes.

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