prairie and meadow plantings, succession and extra, with neil diboll

INTEREST AND AWARENESS round native vegetation has been trending lately, and it makes them really feel virtually new. However in fact natives are the unique vegetation of an space, and even in sure specialty corners of the nursery trade, they’ve been round far longer than they’ve been making headlines.

Simply ask right now’s visitor, Neil Diboll, who has operated Prairie Nursery in Wisconsin for 42 years, since lengthy earlier than phrases like “pollinator backyard” have been modern. He’ll share a few of his favourite species you could not know, and in addition some recommendation on what to anticipate over time managing meadow- and prairie-style plantings, in case you’re amongst these gardeners contemplating transitioning a part of your garden, as an illustration.

Neil has been president and consulting ecologist for Prairie Nursery in Westfield, Wisc., since 1982. Final yr, in collaboration with backyard designer and horticulturist Hilary Cox, he printed “The Gardener’s Information to Prairie Crops” (affiliate hyperlink), a complete information to utilizing prairie vegetation in gardens and bigger restorations. (Above, Culver’s root, Veronicastrum virginicum.)

Plus: Remark within the field close to the underside of the web page to enter to win a duplicate of the guide.

Learn alongside as you take heed to the June 3, 2024 version of my public-radio present and podcast utilizing the participant under. You may subscribe to all future editions on Apple Podcasts (iTunes) or Spotify (and browse my archive of podcasts right here).

speaking prairie vegetation, with neil diboll



Margaret Roach: I really like the guide, Neil; it’s so critical, but additionally accessible. I don’t know for those who may be each issues on the identical time, however one way or the other it’s. So congratulations on that.

Neil Diboll: Thanks.

Margaret: So we did a current “New York Occasions” backyard column collectively, however that wasn’t the primary time I met you. I met you 30-something years in the past after I was engaged on a guide known as “The Pure Habitat Backyard” with Ken Druse, and we came visiting you and study all issues prairie from you. And again then, natives, you jogged my memory once we labored on the current Occasions piece, have been extra more likely to be thought of weeds than modern [laughter]. Sure?

Neil: Oh, sure, sure. Let’s simply say we have been just a little forward of the curve on this. So there was some fairly laborious years making an attempt to persuade individuals to make use of natives after they weren’t accustomed to realizing something about them.

Margaret: Yeah, we’ve come a good distance, nevertheless it feels one way or the other to me—I assume as a result of I get a number of reader and listener questions—it feels to me like within the mainstream horticulture market, the analysis and improvement and advertising efforts have been actually to invent flashy new types of natives and promote, promote, promote them perhaps greater than to teach the shoppers. And I do know you assume schooling is among the most necessary components, and I completely agree, listening to what individuals are confounded by.

Neil: Yeah, schooling is super-important, particularly when 40 years in the past we had a product that no person knew about, and so we needed to educate. And to ensure that individuals to make use of your product correctly, to make use of these vegetation correctly, you must make sure that they perceive them and the way they work together with one another.

So gardening with native prairie vegetation, individuals can create mini-ecosystems or plant communities, and that’s actually a radical idea as a result of now you’re not simply plunking in a plant like this or a plant like that, however you’re truly utilizing a local ecosystem as your mannequin for a backyard. And so somewhat than recreating nature in our personal picture, if you’ll, we’re utilizing nature’s ideas to create a mannequin of nature. So somewhat than a homocentric backyard, it’s a extra of a nature-centric mannequin. And that actually helps to tell gardeners so far as learn how to use these vegetation and learn how to use them to create low-maintenance, high-quality habitat.

Margaret: And simply to that time that you simply’re making, I imply, once we long-time gardeners, even skilled, knowledgeable gardeners, we’d purchase our hostas and our astilbe and our this and that. I simply talked about some shade vegetation, however I might point out solar vegetation, too. We put them down and 30 years later, they’re basically in the identical place that they was [laughter]. You recognize what I imply? We knew learn how to handle them, we knew what they wanted. We knew when to chop them again. We sort of knew the routine. They have been the acquainted palette. And these aren’t essentially.

And as you’re declaring, we’re not simply plunking issues down, “Ooh, look, that’ll look fairly over right here, and this may look fairly over there,” we’re creating communities. And that’s an entire totally different mindset. So I get a number of questions from people who find themselves thrown off by, nicely, how do I make this all work? It’s just a little complicated.

Neil: And it helps to know your vegetation, and lots of gardeners know their vegetation phenomenally nicely, however they’re simply totally different vegetation. And so what we’re seeing now could be that critical gardeners are attending to know native vegetation and making use of ecological ideas in how they design with them, how they handle them, and many others.

Particularly past simply the usage of the vegetation as one thing aesthetic for human beings, however somewhat as a habitat backyard, and what I name a three way partnership with nature, the place we meet nature midway. So we invite nature into our gardens. And somewhat than spraying every little thing to maintain the bugs off, we truly invite the bugs. As a result of in my backyard or my meadows, if I don’t have holes within the leaves of my vegetation, I’m an utter failure as a gardener as a result of I’m not supporting pollinators, I’m not supporting birds. The bugs that kind the inspiration of the meals chain that feed every little thing up, they’re going to eat my vegetation, and that’s why half the rationale why these vegetation are there, not only for me, however for all of us.

Margaret: Proper. Perfectionism just isn’t the purpose [laughter]. And a static image, as I stated, I’ve hostas they usually’re nonetheless in the identical place the place I put them, as I stated, and I might have put them there 30 years in the past. And basically, they’re greater, however they’re nonetheless there. However with let’s say… and perhaps we must always inform the distinction between what’s a meadow versus a prairie planting as a result of that’s type of scorching now, is to make a meadow or transition some garden to meadow or to prairie. What’s the distinction out of your ecologist’s viewpoint?

Neil: Between meadow and prairie?

Margaret: Yeah.

Neil: Yeah. Typically within the lexicon, a meadow is seen as a extra cool-season grass, with grasses that come up early in spring, with varied wildflowers which might be extra predominant within the Jap a part of the US, often a decrease profile. And a prairie is admittedly the outline of the Midwestern tall-grass prairie, which was encountered by early French explorers within the seventeenth, 18th centuries. And so they discovered these large meadows with these tall grasses, and the phrase they used to explain them was prairie, which in fact is the French phrase for meadow. However while you have a look at the best way the phrases, the phrases are used now, meadow often refers to a lower-growing profile, wildflower, meadow. And you may have a brief prairie, however a brief prairie remains to be 1 to five ft tall relying upon the constituents. So it’s nonetheless usually a taller plant group and typical of the Midwest somewhat than the East.

Margaret: So I hear from individuals who transitioned an space to a meadow or a prairie, often, once more, I’m within the East, so I hear from particularly a number of Easterners they usually say, meadow, “I’ve a brand new meadow backyard or no matter.” “I’m managing my meadow.” And within the third yr, I don’t see my black-eyed Susans. There’s no extra black-eyed Susans. And I beloved my black-eyed Susans,” Rudbeckia hirta [above]. Some members of that group that they thought was going to remain static, keep like a postcard picture ceaselessly, and it’s evolving, proper? So uh-oh, succession [laughter].

Neil: Precisely, yeah. And let’s have a look at the 2 alternative ways you should utilize these vegetation. You may create a prairie backyard with transplants, the place you’ll be able to choose long-lived vegetation if you’d like it to be extra static. And that’s why in our guide, we listed vegetation expectations. We don’t have any annuals in there, however now we have a couple of biennials, in fact, with a life expectancy of two years. After which short-lived perennials three to 5 years, after which mid-successional perennials 5 to 10 years, after which later successional perennials 10 to twenty, after which lastly the Methuselah vegetation that stay 20, 30, 40, 50 years and longer.

Margaret: I beloved that Neil, I beloved it. I imply, I’ve by no means seen the life expectancy listed in any guide about vegetation. And while you did that, and it was like “Baptisia, 20-plus years,” and I used to be like, proper, that factor is anchored within the floor. You recognize what I imply? That’s a keeper that’s staying round. It settles down, and it’s there.

Neil: Properly, I believe that is actually necessary for gardeners, so that they know what they’re getting. As you level out, what occurred to my Rudbeckia hirta? Properly, it’s a biennial, and naturally you’re referring to a seed combine the place being a biennial, it’s simply fairly dominant in a second yr, and it would grasp on for one more couple of years, however by the fifth or sixth yr, it’s just about gone due to, as you identified, ecological succession.

And that is actually necessary for individuals to grasp ecological succession, whereby while you seed onto open floor, often the primary yr it’s all weeds, which you didn’t plant. They’re simply dormant seeds within the soil, and also you management them by preserving every little thing mowed again, often to about 6 inches within the first rising season.

After which you’ve gotten biennials that present up in a second yr, just like the black-eyed Susan and weedy biennials. And oftentimes you’ll must mow these within the second yr. After which the third yr, the extra quickly maturing perennials of the prairie flowers and grasses begin to present up. And by the fifth yr, it’s just about a prairie, if every little thing’s going in response to plan.

After which what’s attention-grabbing is the precise variety of complete variety of prairie vegetation often peaks round yr 12 or 15. After which it begins to drop barely because the early successional and mid-successional perennials give solution to these longer-lived vegetation that stay 10 to 20-plus years.

So it’s sort of disappointing typically while you see a few of your favourite vegetation perhaps going by the wayside. However with disturbance… and that is actually necessary, and disturbance is available in many varieties. There’s ripping the bottom up, there’s animal exercise, however the one we often use is managed burning.

With managed burning, you’ll be able to sort of set succession again and preserve what we name gap-phase succession the place you’ve gotten open soil the place a few of these different species that might be shorter-lived, can recede and proceed to keep up as a lot variety as doable. So burning is admittedly an necessary side of this. In fact, lots of people can’t burn or don’t need to burn. It’s truly very straightforward to burn for those who arrange your panorama appropriately. And it’s actually a number of enjoyable as you recognize.

Margaret: There’s an entire part in your guide about it, and after I first met you, you couldn’t wait to deliver me and Ken Druse to your house the place you have been making a prairie. You had a younger prairie backyard in your entrance yard, I believe, and also you wished to indicate us a managed burn. And so once more, you instruct learn how to do it within the guide.

Properly, I really like that you simply stated that we might use a few of these vegetation as type of specimens. Let’s imagine, “I’m going to make a mattress of those prairie vegetation, not a group.” So we might do this and management it extra, however when it’s extra like a meadow or a prairie, the succession goes to take maintain and so forth.

Neil: And while you use seeds, it’s going to be an evolutionary course of. However in fact, we need to have these early-successional, mid-successional species. So now we have curiosity in yr 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, and on, nevertheless it sort of reaches extra of a stasis after about 15 years or so. However it’s not dangerous. You continue to have a lot of flowers and delightful grasses, so there’s just a few species which will fall by the wayside over an prolonged time period.

Margaret: And also you simply stated grasses. And that’s an necessary element as a result of simply selecting an entire lot of flowers, a number of forbs, just isn’t going to do it, just isn’t going to carry all of it collectively and create that group, as a result of these have been vegetation which might be accustomed to having partnerships with grasses.

Neil: Sure. And prairies are grasslands, meadows are grasslands, and so you actually can’t have one with out the grass, and those who have tried to plant simply wildflowers. And it may be completed, nevertheless it’s just a little trickier for numerous causes. Primary, it’s the fibrous roots of the grasses that assist to discourage weeds, as a result of they don’t permit any open soil on the floor of the bottom. And in order that’s the place most weeds get established. There are all the time going to be weeds that may blow in and trigger issues, however you’ll enormously scale back that hazard by having ample amount of grass in your meadow or backyard. So that they’re actually sort of your weeders. Like I say, make the vegetation do the give you the results you want. I don’t need to go on the market and weed. I’m going to design this backyard or design this prairie seed combine so it’s going to have ample grass in it to maintain weeds out as greatest as doable.

And likewise, for those who’re going to burn a prairie, flower sticks, previous flower sticks don’t burn. You want what we name wonderful gasoline—grass—with the intention to carry a fireplace. So for those who don’t have grass in your prairie, it mainly received’t burn. And then you definitely lose that nice administration choice for preserving it very contemporary and new and searching good and preserving out weeds and bushes and shrubs, as a result of hearth is admittedly the easiest way to maintain out invaders, most invaders. And individuals are scared of fireside. Properly, truly on our web site, I’ve an article underneath sources and guides, it’s known as “Learn how to Burn Your Prairie Safely,” and there’s so many tips about how to do that.

So I imply, it’s virtually unattainable to lose it for those who do it proper. And one actually easy trick is simply earlier than you burn it, simply minimize every little thing down and all of the gasoline is on the bottom. As a substitute of getting massive flames, it’s simply creeping alongside the bottom. And so it’s so easy. It’s very easy.

Margaret: I’m sorry that the home wren, by the best way, outdoors my window—although I’ve closed the window, the home wren is insistent on being on this program right now, so you’ll be able to hear him screaming.

Neil: Oh, yeah, that’s good. It’s good to have a companion on the present.

Margaret: [Laughter.] A little bit bossy creature. Yeah. So we have been speaking about making this dwelling mulch in a way by having the element of grasses with the wildflowers, the forbs, and that it makes it extra weed-resistant. The opposite query I get requested rather a lot is when weeds do come by way of, particularly within the early years that I don’t need, ought to I pull them out as a result of then which will open up one other area within the soil? Ought to I pull them out and attempt to do the least opening of soil doable or put one thing on it, like a chunk of cardboard or no matter? Is there any weeding recommendation in any respect for these sort of communities?

Neil: Yeah, as soon as once more, you’re speaking a couple of seeded meadow, seeded prairie, proper?

Margaret: Perhaps, yeah.

Neil: O.Okay. Properly, for those who have a look at it, you must have a look at it strategically, and you must know your weeds. The truth is, after I first began doing this again in 1977, I used to be taking a look at plantings that somebody had completed on the college the place I went to highschool, and it was a really new planting so all I discovered have been weeds. So I needed to study my weeds first, which truly was very helpful.

As a result of for those who have a look at weeds, you have a look at them because the species that can trigger issues in a grassland, you’ve gotten annuals, which present up largely within the first yr and the second yr as nicely. Then you’ve gotten biennials. Now we’re speaking about herbaceous vegetation, annuals and biennials. After which you’ve gotten perennial grasses, and you’ve got perennial rhizomatous grasses and perennial non-rhizomatous grasses. Then you’ve gotten perennial broadleaf weeds, and people are additionally divided into rhizomatous and non-rhizomatous, with the rhizomatous species being the true downside youngsters, these are those that creep in every single place. Issues like Canada thistle and area bindweed and horse nettle. These are actual, actual issues, and also you need to get them out as quickly as you presumably can. Crown vetch, oh, what a horrible plant.

Margaret: We’ve got mugwort, and I do know your recommendation for mugwort.

Neil: Oh, mugwort is like, oh, good luck with that.

Margaret: Relocate. Relocate [laughter].

Neil: Yeah, relocate. Recalibrate, sure. It’s so troublesome after you have a longtime inhabitants of it.

Or what you are able to do is you’ll be able to kill all of it off. After which right here’s just a little trick. In case you have a long-term downside with the seed financial institution, you’ll be able to kill every little thing off with whichever technique you need to use, whether or not it’s smothering or repeated tilling or herbicide or no matter, till there’s completely none of that perennial weed left and none across the edges the place it will probably creep in. After which you’ll be able to put 3 inches of contemporary, clear, topsoil over that which can bury the weed seed financial institution, after which you’ll be able to seed or plant your vegetation into that contemporary soil, assuming that it doesn’t have every other problematic weeds. So this works on a small space, it’s not going to work on a bigger space.

However when you’ve gotten an issue web site with a longterm historical past of actually nasty, thuggish weeds, that is the way you overcome them, by utterly eliminating the weeds after which placing 3 inches of fine, clear topsoil over that, that won’t have weed seeds. However for those who have a look at this, you must know who you’re up towards. So so far as pulling weeds within the first yr of a seeded prairie, you by no means pull weeds, as a result of while you pull the weeds, you undoubtedly, invariably deliver up clumps of soil and there go your prairie seedlings with it. And also you may as nicely go in there and spray it with Roundup. That’s why we preserve every little thing mowed to six inches, as a result of few, if any of these prairie seedlings are going to develop greater than 6 inches within the first yr.

Within the second yr, if now we have downside weeds with biennials like burdock, candy clovers, wild parsnip, a number of these guys can actually be an issue. So proper after they end blooming, we minimize them all the way down to 12 inches, which then stops the seed formation course of.

Margaret: Proper, O.Okay.

Neil: And kills the vegetation apart from Queen Anne’s lace, which is an indeterminate bloomer and would require fixed slicing again of the flowers. Then within the third yr…

Margaret: I used to be going to say strategic relying on what plant you’re up towards, you’ve gotten a method. Yeah.

Neil: Precisely. And that info is within the guide, “The Gardener’s Information to Prairie Crops.” It’s additionally on our web site. So there’s a lot of sources right here the place individuals can get to know these vegetation and what to do. However once more, you must know who you’re up towards and know learn how to strategically management them.

Margaret: Proper, perceive its life historical past and so forth. Yeah.

Neil: Yeah, precisely.

Margaret: So once we did the Occasions story, we talked about how although everybody nearly coast to coast is aware of purple coneflower, Echinacea purpurea, which by the way isn’t native coast to coast, however I even see it offered in catalogs promoting in California, for goodness sake. However there’s so many in every single place it appears [laughter]. However there’s so many nice prairie natives for the Jap half or two-thirds of the nation, which is I assume roughly talking, a number of them are your specialties, that folks don’t know but. And I assumed it might be enjoyable to simply take a couple of minutes to name out so we don’t run out of time. Take a couple of minutes to name out some that you simply want you knew higher, as a result of it’s not simply purple coneflower and Rudbeckia, proper? [Above, hybrid coneflowers combining genetics of Echinacea purpurea and E. pallida.]

Neil: Proper. And individuals are oriented towards the showy flowers. And let’s not overlook that the English have been planting purple coneflower within the nineteenth century, once we have been plowing up the prairies. In order that plant’s been in style for a very long time, simply not right here. However let’s have a look at another vegetation that maybe are just a little extra muted or are good companions for a number of the showier vegetation.

And I actually like a number of the white-flowered vegetation, and white-flowered vegetation additionally significantly good for bees and parasitoid wasps, which assist to manage pests in your backyard. One in every of my favorites is Culver’s root, Veronicastrum virginicum [top of page]. It’s a stately, elegant plant. It’s about 5 ft tall. It has lovely whorled leaves up the stem and these pure white spires of flowers, completely pretty plant, and it’ll develop in clay. It’ll develop in moist soil. It doesn’t like dry soil. It’ll develop in full solar, and it’ll develop partially shade. So it’s a reasonably versatile plant, so long as you give it backyard soil or perhaps a barely damp soil.

One other nice plant is the rattlesnake grasp, Eryngium yuccifolium [below], attractive foliage, excellent flowers, which can bloom for a reasonably prolonged time period. Only a actually attention-grabbing, odd-looking plant, nevertheless it has actual character, and it blooms concurrently prairie blazingstar, Liatris pycnostachya. And you’ve got this lavender-white, fantastic pastel mixture.

That is the place the whites are so fantastic, and it’s attention-grabbing. Folks consider prairies, oh, it’s all stuffed with yellow flowers, however truly there’s a lot of totally different colours. White is the second commonest shade of prairie flowers.

Margaret: I didn’t know that.

Neil: Yeah, it’s wonderful. And so rattlesnake grasp is also pollinated virtually completely by wasps, together with parasitic wasps. And I had a consumer who had horrible issues with tomato hornworm in his vegetable backyard. He planted a 1,000-square-foot prairie from us with a quarter-pound of prairie combine. And after the rattlesnake grasp began blooming, he stated, “I had no extra issues with tomato hornworms.”

And there’s a parasitic wasp that assaults the tomato hornworm by laying eggs on its again, which then burrow into the caterpillar, the caterpillar stage, and mainly eats it from the within out and emerges like “Alien.” So the place do you assume they received that concept for the film? From nature. So he says, “My prairie is my pesticide.” And so a number of natural gardeners will use these vegetation to draw parasitic wasps to maintain, hopefully, in lots of circumstances, to maintain their pests down.

Margaret: And everyone knows… That’s one instance, and never simply with parasitic wasps, however the extra variety, the extra layers of the meals chain are being supported, the extra assist there may be at each degree for any chance.

Neil: Oh, yeah. So true.

Margaret: Yeah. Meals and interventions each can be found.

Neil: So for those who plant a prairie combine with 20, 25, 30 species, you promote them, get one hundred pc. Mom nature’s fairly tough. However I imply, for those who get 70, 80 % of that and also you get a large variety of flowers, you’re not simply feeding bugs, you’re additionally feeding birds as a result of they eat the bugs, and plenty of butterflies come. And naturally the bees, the wasps and everyone.

And individuals are so petrified of wasps, however most wasps, they don’t hassle you. The one wasps you actually have to fret about are yellow jackets. These are the one ones that can assault you if you’re not bothering them. Hornets received’t hassle you. Mud daubers received’t hassle you, cicada killers received’t hassle you until you hassle them. However the yellow jacket, they’d simply as quickly sting as have a look at you. However they often don’t come to the prairie as a result of they eat doughnuts and hamburgers and soda cans.

Margaret: They go to the mall [laughter].

Neil: They go to the picnic.

Margaret: They go to the mall.

Neil: That’s the place they go, they’re not coming to your prairie. So price, one other sensible choice are the mountain mints, genus Pycnanthemum. These are simply pollinator havens, and we couldn’t give these away 20 years in the past. Abruptly, they’re tremendous in style due to the curiosity in pollinators. And so Pycnanthemum is within the mint household, and it’s wonderful at what number of totally different species it attracts.

Margaret: And there’s a number of totally different mountain mints, I believe. I don’t know what number of you carry.

Neil: There’s heaps. Pycnanthemum virginianum, Pycnanthemum tenuifolium, Pycnanthemum muticum [above]. All of those are actually good decisions for attracting pollinators, they usually’re fairly adaptable species.

Margaret: One of many issues that folks ask me about rather a lot, and I believe we talked about perhaps one or two decisions within the Occasions story, individuals need issues which might be low to the bottom, like groundcover-ish issues, as a result of that was what, in fact, as gardeners, we have been all hooked on groundcovers, and there’s not as many decisions perhaps, however there are some. I believe Antennaria, pussytoes is that one [below]?

Neil: That’s an incredible plant for a dry, sandy soil. In case you have a patio with sand in between the stones, it’ll develop in there. It stays actually low. It likes a minimum of a half a day of solar, nevertheless it stays very low. It has lovely silvery leaves.

And it truly is dioecious: It has separate female and male vegetation. It’s laborious to inform the distinction until you rise up shut and private. However it sends up these little flower stalks about 4 inches tall and these lovely whitish-green leaves, they usually particularly have these little white hairs to mirror solar as a result of they develop in very dry environments, the place it’s straightforward to get overheated.

So it’ll develop in super-, super-difficult websites like sandy hillsides and locations like that, or alongside sidewalks, nevertheless it doesn’t like clay. So that you need to have a very good-draining soil. However when you’ve gotten these spots which might be actual scorching spots, like up towards the south aspect of a home that get simply burned up, this can be a nice low-growing plant. And there’s another actually fantastic dry-tolerant prairie vegetation that attain taller heights as nicely for these sorts of troublesome conditions.

Margaret: The final one I need to ask you about is there’s a petunia, nevertheless it’s not a petunia. It’s a Ruellia, I believe.

Neil: Yeah.

Margaret: Yeah. Is it a prairie petunia? Is that what it’s known as? What’s its widespread identify?

Neil: Prairie petunia, wild petunia, Ruellia humilis [above].

Margaret: Wild petunia, O.Okay.

Neil: Humilis: low-growing, humble, low-growing. This can be a actually lovely plant with only a violet flower. And it has a single faucet root, after which it simply spreads out. It sends out these branches alongside the floor of the soil. It doesn’t get greater than a pair ft tall, so it’s one other actually good groundcover-ish plant. It doesn’t creep and kind a floor cowl just like the pussytoes, the place it truly creeps by rhizomes or the wild strawberry [Fragaria virginiana] is one other good one, which creeps by rhizomes and can develop in very troublesome soils, too, very dry soils. And the Ruellia can also be tolerant of scorching, dry circumstances. So these are actually good decisions if you’d like some low-growing vegetation, particularly in robust, scorching conditions.

Margaret: Properly, I’ll embody some hyperlinks to a few of the academic stuff in your web site, as a result of as you stated in the beginning, schooling’s been a very necessary a part of working with a product that folks didn’t actually, and nonetheless don’t totally, find out about, and are simply studying about. I all the time study rather a lot from you, Neil, even after I’m not at your own home and also you’re not setting your entrance garden on hearth to terrify me [laughter].

Neil: Properly, it’s been some time. Margaret. Subsequent spring you must come, and we’ll do an anniversary prairie hearth.

Margaret: O.Okay. Extra trauma [laughter]. Properly, thanks a lot. Thanks for making time right now.

Neil: It’s my pleasure, Margaret.

Margaret: Pull some extra invasives, I’m going to go do the identical. O.Okay.

Neil: All proper. It’s been fantastic. Thanks a lot.

(All pictures from Prairie Nursery, used with permission.)

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