prairie and meadow plantings, succession and extra, with neil diboll

INTEREST AND AWARENESS round native vegetation has been trending lately, and it makes them really feel virtually new. However in fact natives are the unique vegetation of an space, and even in sure specialty corners of the nursery business, they’ve been round far longer than they’ve been making headlines.

Simply ask at the moment’s visitor, Neil Diboll, who has operated Prairie Nursery in Wisconsin for 42 years, since lengthy earlier than phrases like “pollinator backyard” have been trendy. He’ll share a few of his favourite species chances are you’ll not know, and in addition some recommendation on what to anticipate over time managing meadow- and prairie-style plantings, in case you’re amongst these gardeners contemplating transitioning a part of your garden, as an example.

Neil has been president and consulting ecologist for Prairie Nursery in Westfield, Wisc., since 1982. Final yr, in collaboration with backyard designer and horticulturist Hilary Cox, he revealed “The Gardener’s Information to Prairie Vegetation” (affiliate hyperlink), a complete information to utilizing prairie vegetation in gardens and bigger restorations. (Above, Culver’s root, Veronicastrum virginicum.)

Plus: Remark within the field close to the underside of the web page to enter to win a duplicate of the ebook.

Learn alongside as you hearken to the June 3, 2024 version of my public-radio present and podcast utilizing the participant beneath. You may subscribe to all future editions on Apple Podcasts (iTunes) or Spotify (and browse my archive of podcasts right here).

speaking prairie vegetation, with neil diboll



Margaret Roach: I like the ebook, Neil; it’s so severe, but in addition accessible. I don’t know for those who could be each issues on the similar time, however in some way it’s. So congratulations on that.

Neil Diboll: Thanks.

Margaret: So we did a latest “New York Instances” backyard column collectively, however that wasn’t the primary time I met you. I met you 30-something years in the past once I was engaged on a ebook known as “The Pure Habitat Backyard” with Ken Druse, and we came over you and study all issues prairie from you. And again then, natives, you jogged my memory once we labored on the latest Instances piece, have been extra more likely to be thought of weeds than trendy [laughter]. Sure?

Neil: Oh, sure, sure. Let’s simply say we have been just a little forward of the curve on this. So there was some fairly exhausting years making an attempt to persuade folks to make use of natives after they weren’t accustomed to understanding something about them.

Margaret: Yeah, we’ve come a great distance, nevertheless it feels in some way to me—I assume as a result of I get a variety of reader and listener questions—it feels to me like within the mainstream horticulture market, the analysis and improvement and advertising efforts have been actually to invent flashy new types of natives and promote, promote, promote them perhaps greater than to coach the shoppers. And I do know you assume schooling is likely one of the most essential elements, and I completely agree, listening to what individuals are confounded by.

Neil: Yeah, schooling is super-important, particularly when 40 years in the past we had a product that no one knew about, and so we needed to educate. And to ensure that folks to make use of your product correctly, to make use of these vegetation correctly, it is advisable to make sure that they perceive them and the way they work together with one another.

So gardening with native prairie vegetation, folks can create mini-ecosystems or plant communities, and that’s actually a radical idea as a result of now you’re not simply plunking in a plant like this or a plant like that, however you’re truly utilizing a local ecosystem as your mannequin for a backyard. And so somewhat than recreating nature in our personal picture, if you’ll, we’re utilizing nature’s ideas to create a mannequin of nature. So somewhat than a homocentric backyard, it’s a extra of a nature-centric mannequin. And that actually helps to tell gardeners so far as the best way to use these vegetation and the best way to use them to create low-maintenance, high-quality habitat.

Margaret: And simply to that time that you simply’re making, I imply, once we long-time gardeners, even skilled, skilled gardeners, we might purchase our hostas and our astilbe and our this and that. I simply talked about some shade vegetation, however I might point out solar vegetation, too. We put them down and 30 years later, they’re basically in the identical place that they was [laughter]. what I imply? We knew the best way to handle them, we knew what they wanted. We knew when to chop them again. We sort of knew the routine. They have been the acquainted palette. And these aren’t essentially.

And as you’re stating, we’re not simply plunking issues down, “Ooh, look, that’ll look fairly over right here, and it will look fairly over there,” we’re creating communities. And that’s a complete totally different mindset. So I get a variety of questions from people who find themselves thrown off by, nicely, how do I make this all work? It’s just a little complicated.

Neil: And it helps to know your vegetation, and lots of gardeners know their vegetation phenomenally nicely, however they’re simply totally different vegetation. And so what we’re seeing now’s that severe gardeners are attending to know native vegetation and making use of ecological ideas in how they design with them, how they handle them, and many others.

Particularly past simply using the vegetation as one thing aesthetic for human beings, however somewhat as a habitat backyard, and what I name a three way partnership with nature, the place we meet nature midway. So we invite nature into our gardens. And somewhat than spraying all the things to maintain the bugs off, we truly invite the bugs. As a result of in my backyard or my meadows, if I don’t have holes within the leaves of my vegetation, I’m an utter failure as a gardener as a result of I’m not supporting pollinators, I’m not supporting birds. The bugs that kind the inspiration of the meals chain that feed all the things up, they’re going to eat my vegetation, and that’s why half the rationale why these vegetation are there, not only for me, however for all of us.

Margaret: Proper. Perfectionism is just not the aim [laughter]. And a static image, as I mentioned, I’ve hostas and so they’re nonetheless in the identical place the place I put them, as I mentioned, and I might have put them there 30 years in the past. And basically, they’re greater, however they’re nonetheless there. However with let’s say… and perhaps we must always inform the distinction between what’s a meadow versus a prairie planting as a result of that’s kind of scorching now, is to make a meadow or transition some garden to meadow or to prairie. What’s the distinction out of your ecologist’s perspective?

Neil: Between meadow and prairie?

Margaret: Yeah.

Neil: Yeah. Usually within the lexicon, a meadow is considered as a extra cool-season grass, with grasses that come up early in spring, with varied wildflowers which can be extra predominant within the Jap a part of the USA, often a decrease profile. And a prairie is basically the outline of the Midwestern tall-grass prairie, which was encountered by early French explorers within the seventeenth, 18th centuries. And so they discovered these large meadows with these tall grasses, and the phrase they used to explain them was prairie, which in fact is the French phrase for meadow. However if you have a look at the way in which the phrases, the phrases are used now, meadow often refers to a lower-growing profile, wildflower, meadow. And you’ll have a brief prairie, however a brief prairie continues to be 1 to five toes tall relying upon the constituents. So it’s nonetheless usually a taller plant neighborhood and typical of the Midwest somewhat than the East.

Margaret: So I hear from individuals who transitioned an space to a meadow or a prairie, often, once more, I’m within the East, so I hear from particularly a variety of Easterners and so they say, meadow, “I’ve a brand new meadow backyard or no matter.” “I’m managing my meadow.” And within the third yr, I don’t see my black-eyed Susans. There’s no extra black-eyed Susans. And I beloved my black-eyed Susans,” Rudbeckia hirta [above]. Some members of that neighborhood that they thought was going to remain static, keep like a postcard picture perpetually, and it’s evolving, proper? So uh-oh, succession [laughter].

Neil: Precisely, yeah. And let’s have a look at the 2 other ways you need to use these vegetation. You may create a prairie backyard with transplants, the place you possibly can choose long-lived vegetation if you need it to be extra static. And that’s why in our ebook, we listed vegetation expectations. We don’t have any annuals in there, however we’ve got just a few biennials, in fact, with a life expectancy of two years. After which short-lived perennials three to 5 years, after which mid-successional perennials 5 to 10 years, after which later successional perennials 10 to twenty, after which lastly the Methuselah vegetation that dwell 20, 30, 40, 50 years and longer.

Margaret: I beloved that Neil, I beloved it. I imply, I’ve by no means seen the life expectancy listed in any ebook about vegetation. And if you did that, and it was like “Baptisia, 20-plus years,” and I used to be like, proper, that factor is anchored within the floor. what I imply? That’s a keeper that’s staying round. It settles down, and it’s there.

Neil: Properly, I feel that is actually essential for gardeners, so that they know what they’re getting. As you level out, what occurred to my Rudbeckia hirta? Properly, it’s a biennial, and naturally you’re referring to a seed combine the place being a biennial, it’s simply fairly dominant in a second yr, and it’d grasp on for one more couple of years, however by the fifth or sixth yr, it’s just about gone due to, as you identified, ecological succession.

And that is actually essential for folks to grasp ecological succession, whereby if you seed onto open floor, often the primary yr it’s all weeds, which you didn’t plant. They’re simply dormant seeds within the soil, and also you management them by holding all the things mowed again, often to about 6 inches within the first rising season.

After which you have got biennials that present up in a second yr, just like the black-eyed Susan and weedy biennials. And oftentimes you’ll need to mow these within the second yr. After which the third yr, the extra quickly maturing perennials of the prairie flowers and grasses begin to present up. And by the fifth yr, it’s just about a prairie, if all the things’s going in keeping with plan.

After which what’s attention-grabbing is the precise variety of whole variety of prairie vegetation often peaks round yr 12 or 15. After which it begins to drop barely because the early successional and mid-successional perennials give strategy to these longer-lived vegetation that dwell 10 to 20-plus years.

So it’s sort of disappointing typically if you see a few of your favourite vegetation perhaps going by the wayside. However with disturbance… and that is actually essential, and disturbance is available in many kinds. There’s ripping the bottom up, there’s animal exercise, however the one we often use is managed burning.

With managed burning, you’ll be able to sort of set succession again and maintain what we name gap-phase succession the place you have got open soil the place a few of these different species that might be shorter-lived, can recede and proceed to keep up as a lot variety as doable. So burning is basically an essential side of this. After all, lots of people can’t burn or don’t need to burn. It’s truly very straightforward to burn for those who arrange your panorama appropriately. And it’s actually a variety of enjoyable as you realize.

Margaret: There’s a complete part in your ebook about it, and once I first met you, you couldn’t wait to convey me and Ken Druse to your house the place you have been making a prairie. You had a younger prairie backyard in your entrance yard, I feel, and also you wished to point out us a managed burn. And so once more, you instruct the best way to do it within the ebook.

Properly, I like that you simply mentioned that we might use a few of these vegetation as kind of specimens. Let’s imagine, “I’m going to make a mattress of those prairie vegetation, not a neighborhood.” So we might try this and management it extra, however when it’s extra like a meadow or a prairie, the succession goes to take maintain and so forth.

Neil: And if you use seeds, it’s going to be an evolutionary course of. However in fact, we need to have these early-successional, mid-successional species. So we’ve got curiosity in yr 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, and on, nevertheless it sort of reaches extra of a stasis after about 15 years or so. However it’s not unhealthy. You continue to have a number of flowers and exquisite grasses, so there’s just a few species which will fall by the wayside over an prolonged time period.

Margaret: And also you simply mentioned grasses. And that’s an essential part as a result of simply selecting a complete lot of flowers, a variety of forbs, is just not going to do it, is just not going to carry all of it collectively and create that neighborhood, as a result of these have been vegetation which can be accustomed to having partnerships with grasses.

Neil: Sure. And prairies are grasslands, meadows are grasslands, and so you actually can’t have one with out the grass, and people who have tried to plant simply wildflowers. And it may be executed, nevertheless it’s just a little trickier for quite a few causes. Primary, it’s the fibrous roots of the grasses that assist to discourage weeds, as a result of they don’t enable any open soil on the floor of the bottom. And in order that’s the place most weeds get established. There are at all times going to be weeds that may blow in and trigger issues, however you’ll vastly cut back that hazard by having ample amount of grass in your meadow or backyard. In order that they’re actually sort of your weeders. Like I say, make the vegetation do the be just right for you. I don’t need to go on the market and weed. I’m going to design this backyard or design this prairie seed combine so it’s going to have ample grass in it to maintain weeds out as finest as doable.

And in addition, for those who’re going to burn a prairie, flower sticks, previous flower sticks don’t burn. You want what we name nice gas—grass—in an effort to carry a fireplace. So for those who don’t have grass in your prairie, it mainly received’t burn. And you then lose that nice administration choice for holding it very contemporary and new and searching good and holding out weeds and bushes and shrubs, as a result of fireplace is basically the easiest way to maintain out invaders, most invaders. And individuals are scared of fireside. Properly, truly on our web site, I’ve an article below assets and guides, it’s known as “Find out how to Burn Your Prairie Safely,” and there’s so many tips about how to do that.

So I imply, it’s virtually unattainable to lose it for those who do it proper. And one actually easy trick is simply earlier than you burn it, simply minimize all the things down and all of the gas is on the bottom. As an alternative of getting massive flames, it’s simply creeping alongside the bottom. And so it’s so easy. It’s very easy.

Margaret: I’m sorry that the home wren, by the way in which, exterior my window—though I’ve closed the window, the home wren is insistent on being on this program at the moment, so you possibly can hear him screaming.

Neil: Oh, yeah, that’s good. It’s good to have a associate on the present.

Margaret: [Laughter.] Slightly bossy creature. Yeah. So we have been speaking about making this dwelling mulch in a way by having the part of grasses with the wildflowers, the forbs, and that it makes it extra weed-resistant. The opposite query I get requested quite a bit is when weeds do come by means of, particularly within the early years that I don’t need, ought to I pull them out as a result of then which will open up one other house within the soil? Ought to I pull them out and attempt to do the least opening of soil doable or put one thing on it, like a bit of cardboard or no matter? Is there any weeding recommendation in any respect for these sort of communities?

Neil: Yeah, as soon as once more, you’re speaking a couple of seeded meadow, seeded prairie, proper?

Margaret: Possibly, yeah.

Neil: O.Ok. Properly, for those who have a look at it, you must have a look at it strategically, and it is advisable to know your weeds. The truth is, once I first began doing this again in 1977, I used to be plantings that somebody had executed on the college the place I went to high school, and it was a really new planting so all I discovered have been weeds. So I needed to be taught my weeds first, which truly was very useful.

As a result of for those who have a look at weeds, you have a look at them because the species that can trigger issues in a grassland, you have got annuals, which present up largely within the first yr and the second yr as nicely. Then you have got biennials. Now we’re speaking about herbaceous vegetation, annuals and biennials. After which you have got perennial grasses, and you’ve got perennial rhizomatous grasses and perennial non-rhizomatous grasses. Then you have got perennial broadleaf weeds, and people are additionally divided into rhizomatous and non-rhizomatous, with the rhizomatous species being the true drawback youngsters, these are those that creep everywhere. Issues like Canada thistle and area bindweed and horse nettle. These are actual, actual issues, and also you need to get them out as quickly as you presumably can. Crown vetch, oh, what a horrible plant.

Margaret: We now have mugwort, and I do know your recommendation for mugwort.

Neil: Oh, mugwort is like, oh, good luck with that.

Margaret: Relocate. Relocate [laughter].

Neil: Yeah, relocate. Recalibrate, sure. It’s so troublesome upon getting a longtime inhabitants of it.

Or what you are able to do is you possibly can kill all of it off. After which right here’s just a little trick. If in case you have a long-term drawback with the seed financial institution, you possibly can kill all the things off with whichever methodology you need to use, whether or not it’s smothering or repeated tilling or herbicide or no matter, till there’s completely none of that perennial weed left and none across the edges the place it may possibly creep in. After which you possibly can put 3 inches of contemporary, clear, topsoil over that which can bury the weed seed financial institution, after which you possibly can seed or plant your vegetation into that contemporary soil, assuming that it doesn’t have every other problematic weeds. So this works on a small space, it’s not going to work on a bigger space.

However when you have got an issue web site with a longterm historical past of actually nasty, thuggish weeds, that is the way you overcome them, by fully eliminating the weeds after which placing 3 inches of excellent, clear topsoil over that, that won’t have weed seeds. However for those who have a look at this, it is advisable to know who you’re up in opposition to. So so far as pulling weeds within the first yr of a seeded prairie, you by no means pull weeds, as a result of if you pull the weeds, you undoubtedly, invariably convey up clumps of soil and there go your prairie seedlings with it. And also you would possibly as nicely go in there and spray it with Roundup. That’s why we maintain all the things mowed to six inches, as a result of few, if any of these prairie seedlings are going to develop greater than 6 inches within the first yr.

Within the second yr, if we’ve got drawback weeds with biennials like burdock, candy clovers, wild parsnip, a variety of these guys can actually be an issue. So proper after they end blooming, we minimize them all the way down to 12 inches, which then stops the seed formation course of.

Margaret: Proper, O.Ok.

Neil: And kills the vegetation aside from Queen Anne’s lace, which is an indeterminate bloomer and would require fixed slicing again of the flowers. Then within the third yr…

Margaret: I used to be going to say strategic relying on what plant you’re up in opposition to, you have got a technique. Yeah.

Neil: Precisely. And that data is within the ebook, “The Gardener’s Information to Prairie Vegetation.” It’s additionally on our web site. So there’s a number of assets right here the place folks can get to know these vegetation and what to do. However once more, you must know who you’re up in opposition to and know the best way to strategically management them.

Margaret: Proper, perceive its life historical past and so forth. Yeah.

Neil: Yeah, precisely.

Margaret: So once we did the Instances story, we talked about how though everybody nearly coast to coast is aware of purple coneflower, Echinacea purpurea, which by the way isn’t native coast to coast, however I even see it bought in catalogs promoting in California, for goodness sake. However there’s so many in every single place it appears [laughter]. However there’s so many nice prairie natives for the Jap half or two-thirds of the nation, which is I assume roughly talking, a variety of them are your specialties, that folks don’t know but. And I assumed it will be enjoyable to simply take a couple of minutes to name out so we don’t run out of time. Take a couple of minutes to name out some that you simply want you knew higher, as a result of it’s not simply purple coneflower and Rudbeckia, proper? [Above, hybrid coneflowers combining genetics of Echinacea purpurea and E. pallida.]

Neil: Proper. And individuals are oriented towards the showy flowers. And let’s not neglect that the English have been planting purple coneflower within the nineteenth century, once we have been plowing up the prairies. In order that plant’s been widespread for a very long time, simply not right here. However let’s have a look at another vegetation that maybe are just a little extra muted or are good companions for a number of the showier vegetation.

And I actually like a variety of the white-flowered vegetation, and white-flowered vegetation additionally significantly good for bees and parasitoid wasps, which assist to manage pests in your backyard. One in all my favorites is Culver’s root, Veronicastrum virginicum [top of page]. It’s a stately, elegant plant. It’s about 5 toes tall. It has lovely whorled leaves up the stem and these pure white spires of flowers, completely pretty plant, and it’ll develop in clay. It would develop in moist soil. It doesn’t like dry soil. It would develop in full solar, and it’ll develop partly shade. So it’s a fairly versatile plant, so long as you give it backyard soil or perhaps a barely damp soil.

One other nice plant is the rattlesnake grasp, Eryngium yuccifolium [below], attractive foliage, excellent flowers, which can bloom for a reasonably prolonged time period. Only a actually attention-grabbing, odd-looking plant, nevertheless it has actual character, and it blooms concurrently prairie blazingstar, Liatris pycnostachya. And you’ve got this lavender-white, great pastel mixture.

That is the place the whites are so great, and it’s attention-grabbing. Individuals consider prairies, oh, it’s all filled with yellow flowers, however truly there’s a number of totally different colours. White is the second most typical coloration of prairie flowers.

Margaret: I didn’t know that.

Neil: Yeah, it’s wonderful. And so rattlesnake grasp is also pollinated virtually solely by wasps, together with parasitic wasps. And I had a shopper who had horrible issues with tomato hornworm in his vegetable backyard. He planted a 1,000-square-foot prairie from us with a quarter-pound of prairie combine. And after the rattlesnake grasp began blooming, he mentioned, “I had no extra issues with tomato hornworms.”

And there’s a parasitic wasp that assaults the tomato hornworm by laying eggs on its again, which then burrow into the caterpillar, the caterpillar stage, and mainly eats it from the within out and emerges like “Alien.” So the place do you assume they obtained that concept for the film? From nature. So he says, “My prairie is my pesticide.” And so a variety of natural gardeners will use these vegetation to draw parasitic wasps to maintain, hopefully, in lots of instances, to maintain their pests down.

Margaret: And everyone knows… That’s one instance, and never simply with parasitic wasps, however the extra variety, the extra layers of the meals chain are being supported, the extra assist there may be at each stage for any risk.

Neil: Oh, yeah. So true.

Margaret: Yeah. Meals and interventions each can be found.

Neil: So for those who plant a prairie combine with 20, 25, 30 species, you promote them, get one hundred pc. Mom nature’s fairly tough. However I imply, for those who get 70, 80 % of that and also you get a large variety of flowers, you’re not simply feeding bugs, you’re additionally feeding birds as a result of they eat the bugs, and many butterflies come. And naturally the bees, the wasps and all people.

And individuals are so terrified of wasps, however most wasps, they don’t trouble you. The one wasps you actually have to fret about are yellow jackets. These are the one ones that can assault you if you’re not bothering them. Hornets received’t trouble you. Mud daubers received’t trouble you, cicada killers received’t trouble you until you trouble them. However the yellow jacket, they’d simply as quickly sting as have a look at you. However they often don’t come to the prairie as a result of they eat doughnuts and hamburgers and soda cans.

Margaret: They go to the mall [laughter].

Neil: They go to the picnic.

Margaret: They go to the mall.

Neil: That’s the place they go, they’re not coming to your prairie. So fee, one other good selection are the mountain mints, genus Pycnanthemum. These are simply pollinator havens, and we couldn’t give these away 20 years in the past. All of the sudden, they’re tremendous widespread due to the curiosity in pollinators. And so Pycnanthemum is within the mint household, and it’s wonderful at what number of totally different species it attracts.

Margaret: And there’s a number of totally different mountain mints, I feel. I don’t know what number of you carry.

Neil: There’s tons. Pycnanthemum virginianum, Pycnanthemum tenuifolium, Pycnanthemum muticum [above]. All of those are actually good decisions for attracting pollinators, and so they’re fairly adaptable species.

Margaret: One of many issues that folks ask me about quite a bit, and I feel we talked about perhaps one or two decisions within the Instances story, folks need issues which can be low to the bottom, like groundcover-ish issues, as a result of that was what, in fact, as gardeners, we have been all hooked on groundcovers, and there’s not as many decisions perhaps, however there are some. I feel Antennaria, pussytoes is that one [below]?

Neil: That’s an awesome plant for a dry, sandy soil. If in case you have a patio with sand in between the stones, it’ll develop in there. It stays actually low. It likes at the very least a half a day of solar, nevertheless it stays very low. It has lovely silvery leaves.

And it truly is dioecious: It has separate female and male vegetation. It’s exhausting to inform the distinction until you rise up shut and private. However it sends up these little flower stalks about 4 inches tall and these lovely whitish-green leaves, and so they particularly have these little white hairs to replicate solar as a result of they develop in very dry environments, the place it’s straightforward to get overheated.

So it’ll develop in super-, super-difficult websites like sandy hillsides and locations like that, or alongside sidewalks, nevertheless it doesn’t like clay. So that you need to have a extremely good-draining soil. However when you have got these spots which can be actual scorching spots, like up in opposition to the south facet of a home that get simply burned up, it is a nice low-growing plant. And there’s another actually great dry-tolerant prairie vegetation that attain taller heights as nicely for these sorts of troublesome conditions.

Margaret: The final one I need to ask you about is there’s a petunia, nevertheless it’s not a petunia. It’s a Ruellia, I feel.

Neil: Yeah.

Margaret: Yeah. Is it a prairie petunia? Is that what it’s known as? What’s its widespread title?

Neil: Prairie petunia, wild petunia, Ruellia humilis [above].

Margaret: Wild petunia, O.Ok.

Neil: Humilis: low-growing, humble, low-growing. This can be a actually lovely plant with only a violet flower. And it has a single faucet root, after which it simply spreads out. It sends out these branches alongside the floor of the soil. It doesn’t get greater than a pair toes tall, so it’s one other actually good groundcover-ish plant. It doesn’t creep and kind a floor cowl just like the pussytoes, the place it truly creeps by rhizomes or the wild strawberry [Fragaria virginiana] is one other good one, which creeps by rhizomes and can develop in very troublesome soils, too, very dry soils. And the Ruellia can also be tolerant of scorching, dry circumstances. So these are actually good decisions if you need some low-growing vegetation, particularly in robust, scorching conditions.

Margaret: Properly, I’ll embrace some hyperlinks to a few of the academic stuff in your web site, as a result of as you mentioned originally, schooling’s been a extremely essential a part of working with a product that folks didn’t actually, and nonetheless don’t totally, learn about, and are simply studying about. I at all times be taught quite a bit from you, Neil, even once I’m not at your own home and also you’re not setting your entrance garden on fireplace to terrify me [laughter].

Neil: Properly, it’s been some time. Margaret. Subsequent spring you need to come, and we’ll do an anniversary prairie fireplace.

Margaret: O.Ok. Extra trauma [laughter]. Properly, thanks a lot. Thanks for making time at the moment.

Neil: It’s my pleasure, Margaret.

Margaret: Pull some extra invasives, I’m going to go do the identical. O.Ok.

Neil: All proper. It’s been great. Thanks a lot.

(All images from Prairie Nursery, used with permission.)

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