prairie and meadow plantings, succession and extra, with neil diboll


INTEREST AND AWARENESS round native crops has been trending lately, and it makes them really feel virtually new. However in fact natives are the unique crops of an space, and even in sure specialty corners of the nursery trade, they’ve been round far longer than they’ve been making headlines.

Simply ask right this moment’s visitor, Neil Diboll, who has operated Prairie Nursery in Wisconsin for 42 years, since lengthy earlier than phrases like “pollinator backyard” have been modern. He’ll share a few of his favourite species it’s possible you’ll not know, and in addition some recommendation on what to anticipate over time managing meadow- and prairie-style plantings, in case you’re amongst these gardeners contemplating transitioning a part of your garden, for example.

Neil has been president and consulting ecologist for Prairie Nursery in Westfield, Wisc., since 1982. Final 12 months, in collaboration with backyard designer and horticulturist Hilary Cox, he printed “The Gardener’s Information to Prairie Crops” (affiliate hyperlink), a complete information to utilizing prairie crops in gardens and bigger restorations. (Above, Culver’s root, Veronicastrum virginicum.)

Plus: Remark within the field close to the underside of the web page to enter to win a replica of the e book.

Learn alongside as you hearken to the June 3, 2024 version of my public-radio present and podcast utilizing the participant beneath. You may subscribe to all future editions on Apple Podcasts (iTunes) or Spotify (and browse my archive of podcasts right here).

speaking prairie crops, with neil diboll

 

 

Margaret Roach: I really like the e book, Neil; it’s so critical, but additionally accessible. I don’t know if you happen to could be each issues on the similar time, however one way or the other it’s. So congratulations on that.

Neil Diboll: Thanks.

Margaret: So we did a current “New York Occasions” backyard column collectively, however that wasn’t the primary time I met you. I met you 30-something years in the past once I was engaged on a e book referred to as “The Pure Habitat Backyard” with Ken Druse, and we came around you and find out about all issues prairie from you. And again then, natives, you jogged my memory after we labored on the current Occasions piece, have been extra prone to be thought-about weeds than modern [laughter]. Sure?

Neil: Oh, sure, sure. Let’s simply say we have been a bit forward of the curve on this. So there was some fairly exhausting years attempting to persuade individuals to make use of natives after they weren’t accustomed to realizing something about them.

Margaret: Yeah, we’ve come a great distance, however it feels one way or the other to me—I assume as a result of I get numerous reader and listener questions—it feels to me like within the mainstream horticulture market, the analysis and improvement and advertising and marketing efforts have been actually to invent flashy new types of natives and promote, promote, promote them perhaps greater than to coach the shoppers. And I do know you assume training is without doubt one of the most vital elements, and I completely agree, listening to what individuals are confounded by.

Neil: Yeah, training is super-important, particularly when 40 years in the past we had a product that no person knew about, and so we needed to educate. And to ensure that individuals to make use of your product correctly, to make use of these crops correctly, you have to be certain that they perceive them and the way they work together with one another.

So gardening with native prairie crops, individuals can create mini-ecosystems or plant communities, and that’s actually a radical idea as a result of now you’re not simply plunking in a plant like this or a plant like that, however you’re really utilizing a local ecosystem as your mannequin for a backyard. And so relatively than recreating nature in our personal picture, if you’ll, we’re utilizing nature’s ideas to create a mannequin of nature. So relatively than a homocentric backyard, it’s a extra of a nature-centric mannequin. And that actually helps to tell gardeners so far as how one can use these crops and how one can use them to create low-maintenance, high-quality habitat.

Margaret: And simply to that time that you just’re making, I imply, after we long-time gardeners, even skilled, knowledgeable gardeners, we’d purchase our hostas and our astilbe and our this and that. I simply talked about some shade crops, however I may point out solar crops, too. We put them down and 30 years later, they’re basically in the identical place that they was once [laughter]. You recognize what I imply? We knew how one can handle them, we knew what they wanted. We knew when to chop them again. We sort of knew the routine. They have been the acquainted palette. And these will not be essentially.

And as you’re mentioning, we’re not simply plunking issues down, “Ooh, look, that’ll look fairly over right here, and this can look fairly over there,” we’re creating communities. And that’s an entire completely different mindset. So I get numerous questions from people who find themselves thrown off by, properly, how do I make this all work? It’s a bit complicated.

Neil: And it helps to know your crops, and lots of gardeners know their crops phenomenally properly, however they’re simply completely different crops. And so what we’re seeing now’s that critical gardeners are attending to know native crops and making use of ecological ideas in how they design with them, how they handle them, and so forth.

Particularly past simply the usage of the crops as one thing aesthetic for human beings, however relatively as a habitat backyard, and what I name a three way partnership with nature, the place we meet nature midway. So we invite nature into our gardens. And relatively than spraying every thing to maintain the bugs off, we really invite the bugs. As a result of in my backyard or my meadows, if I don’t have holes within the leaves of my crops, I’m an utter failure as a gardener as a result of I’m not supporting pollinators, I’m not supporting birds. The bugs that kind the inspiration of the meals chain that feed every thing up, they’re going to eat my crops, and that’s why half the explanation why these crops are there, not only for me, however for all of us.

Margaret: Proper. Perfectionism just isn’t the objective [laughter]. And a static image, as I mentioned, I’ve hostas and so they’re nonetheless in the identical place the place I put them, as I mentioned, and I may have put them there 30 years in the past. And basically, they’re greater, however they’re nonetheless there. However with let’s say… and perhaps we should always inform the distinction between what’s a meadow versus a prairie planting as a result of that’s kind of sizzling now, is to make a meadow or transition some garden to meadow or to prairie. What’s the distinction out of your ecologist’s viewpoint?

Neil: Between meadow and prairie?

Margaret: Yeah.

Neil: Yeah. Typically within the lexicon, a meadow is considered as a extra cool-season grass, with grasses that come up early in spring, with varied wildflowers which might be extra predominant within the Jap a part of the US, often a decrease profile. And a prairie is absolutely the outline of the Midwestern tall-grass prairie, which was encountered by early French explorers within the seventeenth, 18th centuries. And so they discovered these large meadows with these tall grasses, and the phrase they used to explain them was prairie, which in fact is the French phrase for meadow. However if you take a look at the best way the phrases, the phrases are used now, meadow often refers to a lower-growing profile, wildflower, meadow. And you may have a brief prairie, however a brief prairie continues to be 1 to five ft tall relying upon the constituents. So it’s nonetheless typically a taller plant neighborhood and typical of the Midwest relatively than the East.

Margaret: So I hear from individuals who transitioned an space to a meadow or a prairie, often, once more, I’m within the East, so I hear from particularly numerous Easterners and so they say, meadow, “I’ve a brand new meadow backyard or no matter.” “I’m managing my meadow.” And within the third 12 months, I don’t see my black-eyed Susans. There’s no extra black-eyed Susans. And I liked my black-eyed Susans,” Rudbeckia hirta [above]. Some members of that neighborhood that they thought was going to remain static, keep like a postcard picture perpetually, and it’s evolving, proper? So uh-oh, succession [laughter].

Neil: Precisely, yeah. And let’s take a look at the 2 other ways you should use these crops. You may create a prairie backyard with transplants, the place you’ll be able to choose long-lived crops if you would like it to be extra static. And that’s why in our e book, we listed flora expectations. We don’t have any annuals in there, however we now have a couple of biennials, in fact, with a life expectancy of two years. After which short-lived perennials three to 5 years, after which mid-successional perennials 5 to 10 years, after which later successional perennials 10 to twenty, after which lastly the Methuselah crops that dwell 20, 30, 40, 50 years and longer.

Margaret: I liked that Neil, I liked it. I imply, I’ve by no means seen the life expectancy listed in any e book about crops. And if you did that, and it was like “Baptisia, 20-plus years,” and I used to be like, proper, that factor is anchored within the floor. You recognize what I imply? That’s a keeper that’s staying round. It settles down, and it’s there.

Neil: Effectively, I believe that is actually vital for gardeners, so that they know what they’re getting. As you level out, what occurred to my Rudbeckia hirta? Effectively, it’s a biennial, and naturally you’re referring to a seed combine the place being a biennial, it’s simply fairly dominant in a second 12 months, and it would hold on for one more couple of years, however by the fifth or sixth 12 months, it’s just about gone due to, as you identified, ecological succession.

And that is actually vital for individuals to know ecological succession, whereby if you seed onto open floor, often the primary 12 months it’s all weeds, which you didn’t plant. They’re simply dormant seeds within the soil, and also you management them by preserving every thing mowed again, often to about 6 inches within the first rising season.

After which you could have biennials that present up in a second 12 months, just like the black-eyed Susan and weedy biennials. And oftentimes you’ll should mow these within the second 12 months. After which the third 12 months, the extra quickly maturing perennials of the prairie flowers and grasses begin to present up. And by the fifth 12 months, it’s just about a prairie, if every thing’s going in accordance with plan.

After which what’s attention-grabbing is the precise range of whole variety of prairie crops often peaks round 12 months 12 or 15. After which it begins to drop barely because the early successional and mid-successional perennials give option to these longer-lived crops that dwell 10 to 20-plus years.

So it’s sort of disappointing generally if you see a few of your favourite crops perhaps going by the wayside. However with disturbance… and that is actually vital, and disturbance is available in many varieties. There’s ripping the bottom up, there’s animal exercise, however the one we often use is managed burning.

With managed burning, you’ll be able to sort of set succession again and preserve what we name gap-phase succession the place you could have open soil the place a few of these different species that will be shorter-lived, can recede and proceed to take care of as a lot range as potential. So burning is absolutely an vital facet of this. In fact, lots of people can’t burn or don’t need to burn. It’s really very simple to burn if you happen to arrange your panorama accurately. And it’s actually numerous enjoyable as you realize.

Margaret: There’s an entire part in your e book about it, and once I first met you, you couldn’t wait to deliver me and Ken Druse to your property the place you have been making a prairie. You had a younger prairie backyard in your entrance yard, I believe, and also you needed to indicate us a managed burn. And so once more, you instruct how one can do it within the e book.

Effectively, I really like that you just mentioned that we may use a few of these crops as kind of specimens. Lets say, “I’m going to make a mattress of those prairie crops, not a neighborhood.” So we may try this and management it extra, however when it’s extra like a meadow or a prairie, the succession goes to take maintain and so forth.

Neil: And if you use seeds, it’s going to be an evolutionary course of. However in fact, we need to have these early-successional, mid-successional species. So we now have curiosity in 12 months 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, and on, however it sort of reaches extra of a stasis after about 15 years or so. But it surely’s not dangerous. You continue to have a number of flowers and exquisite grasses, so there’s just a few species that will fall by the wayside over an prolonged time frame.

Margaret: And also you simply mentioned grasses. And that’s an vital element as a result of simply selecting an entire lot of flowers, numerous forbs, just isn’t going to do it, just isn’t going to carry all of it collectively and create that neighborhood, as a result of these have been crops which might be accustomed to having partnerships with grasses.

Neil: Sure. And prairies are grasslands, meadows are grasslands, and so you actually can’t have one with out the grass, and those that have tried to plant simply wildflowers. And it may be finished, however it’s a bit trickier for numerous causes. Primary, it’s the fibrous roots of the grasses that assist to discourage weeds, as a result of they don’t enable any open soil on the floor of the bottom. And in order that’s the place most weeds get established. There are all the time going to be weeds that may blow in and trigger issues, however you’ll enormously scale back that hazard by having adequate amount of grass in your meadow or backyard. So that they’re actually sort of your weeders. Like I say, make the crops do the be just right for you. I don’t need to go on the market and weed. I’m going to design this backyard or design this prairie seed combine so it’s going to have adequate grass in it to maintain weeds out as finest as potential.

And likewise, if you happen to’re going to burn a prairie, flower sticks, outdated flower sticks don’t burn. You want what we name high-quality gas—grass—to be able to carry a hearth. So if you happen to don’t have grass in your prairie, it mainly gained’t burn. And then you definately lose that nice administration choice for preserving it very recent and new and searching good and preserving out weeds and bushes and shrubs, as a result of hearth is absolutely the easiest way to maintain out invaders, most invaders. And individuals are scared of fireplace. Effectively, really on our web site, I’ve an article below sources and guides, it’s referred to as “Easy methods to Burn Your Prairie Safely,” and there’s so many recommendations on how to do that.

So I imply, it’s virtually inconceivable to lose it if you happen to do it proper. And one actually easy trick is simply earlier than you burn it, simply reduce every thing down and all of the gas is on the bottom. As an alternative of getting massive flames, it’s simply creeping alongside the bottom. And so it’s so easy. It’s very easy.

Margaret: I’m sorry that the home wren, by the best way, outdoors my window—though I’ve closed the window, the home wren is insistent on being on this program right this moment, so you’ll be able to hear him screaming.

Neil: Oh, yeah, that’s good. It’s good to have a associate on the present.

Margaret: [Laughter.] Slightly bossy creature. Yeah. So we have been speaking about making this dwelling mulch in a way by having the element of grasses with the wildflowers, the forbs, and that it makes it extra weed-resistant. The opposite query I get requested loads is when weeds do come by way of, particularly within the early years that I don’t need, ought to I pull them out as a result of then that will open up one other area within the soil? Ought to I pull them out and attempt to do the least opening of soil potential or put one thing on it, like a bit of cardboard or no matter? Is there any weeding recommendation in any respect for these sort of communities?

Neil: Yeah, as soon as once more, you’re speaking a couple of seeded meadow, seeded prairie, proper?

Margaret: Possibly, yeah.

Neil: O.Ok. Effectively, if you happen to take a look at it, you need to take a look at it strategically, and you have to know your weeds. In reality, once I first began doing this again in 1977, I used to be taking a look at plantings that somebody had finished on the college the place I went to high school, and it was a really new planting so all I discovered have been weeds. So I needed to be taught my weeds first, which really was very useful.

As a result of if you happen to take a look at weeds, you take a look at them because the species that can trigger issues in a grassland, you could have annuals, which present up principally within the first 12 months and the second 12 months as properly. Then you could have biennials. Now we’re speaking about herbaceous crops, annuals and biennials. After which you could have perennial grasses, and you’ve got perennial rhizomatous grasses and perennial non-rhizomatous grasses. Then you could have perennial broadleaf weeds, and people are additionally divided into rhizomatous and non-rhizomatous, with the rhizomatous species being the actual downside youngsters, these are those that creep far and wide. Issues like Canada thistle and subject bindweed and horse nettle. These are actual, actual issues, and also you need to get them out as quickly as you presumably can. Crown vetch, oh, what a horrible plant.

Margaret: We have now mugwort, and I do know your recommendation for mugwort.

Neil: Oh, mugwort is like, oh, good luck with that.

Margaret: Relocate. Relocate [laughter].

Neil: Yeah, relocate. Recalibrate, sure. It’s so troublesome upon getting a longtime inhabitants of it.

Or what you are able to do is you’ll be able to kill all of it off. After which right here’s a bit trick. In case you have a long-term downside with the seed financial institution, you’ll be able to kill every thing off with whichever technique you need to use, whether or not it’s smothering or repeated tilling or herbicide or no matter, till there’s completely none of that perennial weed left and none across the edges the place it could creep in. After which you’ll be able to put 3 inches of recent, clear, topsoil over that which can bury the weed seed financial institution, after which you’ll be able to seed or plant your crops into that recent soil, assuming that it doesn’t have some other problematic weeds. So this works on a small space, it’s not going to work on a bigger space.

However when you could have an issue website with a longterm historical past of actually nasty, thuggish weeds, that is the way you overcome them, by fully eliminating the weeds after which placing 3 inches of fine, clear topsoil over that, that won’t have weed seeds. However if you happen to take a look at this, you have to know who you’re up towards. So so far as pulling weeds within the first 12 months of a seeded prairie, you by no means pull weeds, as a result of if you pull the weeds, you undoubtedly, invariably deliver up clumps of soil and there go your prairie seedlings with it. And also you would possibly as properly go in there and spray it with Roundup. That’s why we preserve every thing mowed to six inches, as a result of few, if any of these prairie seedlings are going to develop greater than 6 inches within the first 12 months.

Within the second 12 months, if we now have downside weeds with biennials like burdock, candy clovers, wild parsnip, numerous these guys can actually be an issue. So proper after they end blooming, we reduce them right down to 12 inches, which then stops the seed formation course of.

Margaret: Proper, O.Ok.

Neil: And kills the crops aside from Queen Anne’s lace, which is an indeterminate bloomer and would require fixed chopping again of the flowers. Then within the third 12 months…

Margaret: I used to be going to say strategic relying on what plant you’re up towards, you could have a method. Yeah.

Neil: Precisely. And that data is within the e book, “The Gardener’s Information to Prairie Crops.” It’s additionally on our web site. So there’s a number of sources right here the place individuals can get to know these crops and what to do. However once more, you need to know who you’re up towards and know how one can strategically management them.

Margaret: Proper, perceive its life historical past and so forth. Yeah.

Neil: Yeah, precisely.

Margaret: So after we did the Occasions story, we talked about how though everybody nearly coast to coast is aware of purple coneflower, Echinacea purpurea, which by the way isn’t native coast to coast, however I even see it offered in catalogs promoting in California, for goodness sake. However there’s so many all over the place it appears [laughter]. However there’s so many nice prairie natives for the Jap half or two-thirds of the nation, which is I assume roughly talking, numerous them are your specialties, that folks don’t know but. And I assumed it will be enjoyable to simply take a couple of minutes to name out so we don’t run out of time. Take a couple of minutes to name out some that you just want you knew higher, as a result of it’s not simply purple coneflower and Rudbeckia, proper? [Above, hybrid coneflowers combining genetics of Echinacea purpurea and E. pallida.]

Neil: Proper. And individuals are oriented towards the showy flowers. And let’s not overlook that the English have been planting purple coneflower within the nineteenth century, after we have been plowing up the prairies. In order that plant’s been well-liked for a very long time, simply not right here. However let’s take a look at another crops that maybe are a bit extra muted or are good companions for among the showier crops.

And I actually like numerous the white-flowered crops, and white-flowered crops additionally notably good for bees and parasitoid wasps, which assist to regulate pests in your backyard. Considered one of my favorites is Culver’s root, Veronicastrum virginicum [top of page]. It’s a stately, elegant plant. It’s about 5 ft tall. It has lovely whorled leaves up the stem and these pure white spires of flowers, completely beautiful plant, and it’ll develop in clay. It’ll develop in moist soil. It doesn’t like dry soil. It’ll develop in full solar, and it’ll develop partially shade. So it’s a reasonably versatile plant, so long as you give it a great backyard soil or perhaps a barely damp soil.

One other nice plant is the rattlesnake grasp, Eryngium yuccifolium [below], attractive foliage, excellent flowers, which can bloom for a reasonably prolonged time frame. Only a actually attention-grabbing, odd-looking plant, however it has actual character, and it blooms concurrently prairie blazingstar, Liatris pycnostachya. And you’ve got this lavender-white, great pastel mixture.

That is the place the whites are so great, and it’s attention-grabbing. Individuals consider prairies, oh, it’s all filled with yellow flowers, however really there’s a number of completely different colours. White is the second commonest colour of prairie flowers.

Margaret: I didn’t know that.

Neil: Yeah, it’s wonderful. And so rattlesnake grasp is also pollinated virtually completely by wasps, together with parasitic wasps. And I had a shopper who had horrible issues with tomato hornworm in his vegetable backyard. He planted a 1,000-square-foot prairie from us with a quarter-pound of prairie combine. And after the rattlesnake grasp began blooming, he mentioned, “I had no extra issues with tomato hornworms.”

And there’s a parasitic wasp that assaults the tomato hornworm by laying eggs on its again, which then burrow into the caterpillar, the caterpillar stage, and mainly eats it from the within out and emerges like “Alien.” So the place do you assume they acquired that concept for the film? From nature. So he says, “My prairie is my pesticide.” And so numerous natural gardeners will use these crops to draw parasitic wasps to maintain, hopefully, in lots of circumstances, to maintain their pests down.

Margaret: And everyone knows… That’s one instance, and never simply with parasitic wasps, however the extra range, the extra layers of the meals chain are being supported, the extra assist there’s at each stage for any chance.

Neil: Oh, yeah. So true.

Margaret: Yeah. Meals and interventions each can be found.

Neil: So if you happen to plant a prairie combine with 20, 25, 30 species, you promote them, get 100%. Mom nature’s fairly tough. However I imply, if you happen to get 70, 80 p.c of that and also you get a large range of flowers, you’re not simply feeding bugs, you’re additionally feeding birds as a result of they eat the bugs, and plenty of butterflies come. And naturally the bees, the wasps and everyone.

And individuals are so frightened of wasps, however most wasps, they don’t hassle you. The one wasps you actually have to fret about are yellow jackets. These are the one ones that can assault you in case you are not bothering them. Hornets gained’t hassle you. Mud daubers gained’t hassle you, cicada killers gained’t hassle you until you hassle them. However the yellow jacket, they’d simply as quickly sting as take a look at you. However they often don’t come to the prairie as a result of they eat doughnuts and hamburgers and soda cans.

Margaret: They go to the mall [laughter].

Neil: They go to the picnic.

Margaret: They go to the mall.

Neil: That’s the place they go, they’re not coming to your prairie. So fee, one other sensible choice are the mountain mints, genus Pycnanthemum. These are simply pollinator havens, and we couldn’t give these away 20 years in the past. All of the sudden, they’re tremendous well-liked due to the curiosity in pollinators. And so Pycnanthemum is within the mint household, and it’s wonderful at what number of completely different species it attracts.

Margaret: And there’s a number of completely different mountain mints, I believe. I don’t know what number of you carry.

Neil: There’s tons. Pycnanthemum virginianum, Pycnanthemum tenuifolium, Pycnanthemum muticum [above]. All of those are actually good selections for attracting pollinators, and so they’re fairly adaptable species.

Margaret: One of many issues that folks ask me about loads, and I believe we talked about perhaps one or two selections within the Occasions story, individuals need issues which might be low to the bottom, like groundcover-ish issues, as a result of that was what, in fact, as gardeners, we have been all hooked on groundcovers, and there’s not as many selections perhaps, however there are some. I believe Antennaria, pussytoes is that one [below]?

Neil: That’s an excellent plant for a dry, sandy soil. In case you have a patio with sand in between the stones, it’ll develop in there. It stays actually low. It likes no less than a half a day of solar, however it stays very low. It has lovely silvery leaves.

And it really is dioecious: It has separate female and male crops. It’s exhausting to inform the distinction until you rise up shut and private. But it surely sends up these little flower stalks about 4 inches tall and these lovely whitish-green leaves, and so they particularly have these little white hairs to replicate solar as a result of they develop in very dry environments, the place it’s simple to get overheated.

So it’ll develop in super-, super-difficult websites like sandy hillsides and locations like that, or alongside sidewalks, however it doesn’t like clay. So that you need to have a very good-draining soil. However when you could have these spots which might be actual sizzling spots, like up towards the south facet of a home that get simply burned up, this can be a nice low-growing plant. And there’s another actually great dry-tolerant prairie crops that attain taller heights as properly for these sorts of troublesome conditions.

Margaret: The final one I need to ask you about is there’s a petunia, however it’s not a petunia. It’s a Ruellia, I believe.

Neil: Yeah.

Margaret: Yeah. Is it a prairie petunia? Is that what it’s referred to as? What’s its frequent title?

Neil: Prairie petunia, wild petunia, Ruellia humilis [above].

Margaret: Wild petunia, O.Ok.

Neil: Humilis: low-growing, humble, low-growing. It is a actually lovely plant with only a violet flower. And it has a single faucet root, after which it simply spreads out. It sends out these branches alongside the floor of the soil. It doesn’t get greater than a pair ft tall, so it’s one other actually good groundcover-ish plant. It doesn’t creep and kind a floor cowl just like the pussytoes, the place it really creeps by rhizomes or the wild strawberry [Fragaria virginiana] is one other good one, which creeps by rhizomes and can develop in very troublesome soils, too, very dry soils. And the Ruellia can also be tolerant of sizzling, dry circumstances. So these are actually good selections if you would like some low-growing crops, particularly in powerful, sizzling conditions.

Margaret: Effectively, I’ll embrace some hyperlinks to a few of the academic stuff in your web site, as a result of as you mentioned firstly, training’s been a very vital a part of working with a product that folks didn’t actually, and nonetheless don’t absolutely, learn about, and are simply studying about. I all the time be taught loads from you, Neil, even once I’m not at your home and also you’re not setting your entrance garden on hearth to terrify me [laughter].

Neil: Effectively, it’s been some time. Margaret. Subsequent spring you must come, and we’ll do an anniversary prairie hearth.

Margaret: O.Ok. Extra trauma [laughter]. Effectively, thanks a lot. Thanks for making time right this moment.

Neil: It’s my pleasure, Margaret.

Margaret: Pull some extra invasives, I’m going to go do the identical. O.Ok.

Neil: All proper. It’s been great. Thanks a lot.

(All images from Prairie Nursery, used with permission.)

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