prairie and meadow plantings, succession and extra, with neil diboll


INTEREST AND AWARENESS round native vegetation has been trending in recent times, and it makes them really feel nearly new. However after all natives are the unique vegetation of an space, and even in sure specialty corners of the nursery trade, they’ve been round far longer than they’ve been making headlines.

Simply ask in the present day’s visitor, Neil Diboll, who has operated Prairie Nursery in Wisconsin for 42 years, since lengthy earlier than phrases like “pollinator backyard” have been modern. He’ll share a few of his favourite species you could not know, and likewise some recommendation on what to anticipate over time managing meadow- and prairie-style plantings, in case you’re amongst these gardeners contemplating transitioning a part of your garden, as an example.

Neil has been president and consulting ecologist for Prairie Nursery in Westfield, Wisc., since 1982. Final yr, in collaboration with backyard designer and horticulturist Hilary Cox, he revealed “The Gardener’s Information to Prairie Crops” (affiliate hyperlink), a complete information to utilizing prairie vegetation in gardens and bigger restorations. (Above, Culver’s root, Veronicastrum virginicum.)

Plus: Remark within the field close to the underside of the web page to enter to win a duplicate of the e book.

Learn alongside as you hearken to the June 3, 2024 version of my public-radio present and podcast utilizing the participant beneath. You possibly can subscribe to all future editions on Apple Podcasts (iTunes) or Spotify (and browse my archive of podcasts right here).

speaking prairie vegetation, with neil diboll

 

 

Margaret Roach: I like the e book, Neil; it’s so critical, but additionally accessible. I don’t know for those who could be each issues on the identical time, however one way or the other it’s. So congratulations on that.

Neil Diboll: Thanks.

Margaret: So we did a latest “New York Instances” backyard column collectively, however that wasn’t the primary time I met you. I met you 30-something years in the past once I was engaged on a e book known as “The Pure Habitat Backyard” with Ken Druse, and we came over you and find out about all issues prairie from you. And again then, natives, you jogged my memory once we labored on the latest Instances piece, have been extra prone to be thought of weeds than modern [laughter]. Sure?

Neil: Oh, sure, sure. Let’s simply say we have been just a little forward of the curve on this. So there was some fairly exhausting years making an attempt to persuade folks to make use of natives once they weren’t accustomed to understanding something about them.

Margaret: Yeah, we’ve come a good distance, however it feels one way or the other to me—I assume as a result of I get a number of reader and listener questions—it feels to me like within the mainstream horticulture market, the analysis and improvement and advertising efforts have been actually to invent flashy new types of natives and promote, promote, promote them possibly greater than to teach the purchasers. And I do know you assume schooling is likely one of the most vital components, and I completely agree, listening to what persons are confounded by.

Neil: Yeah, schooling is super-important, particularly when 40 years in the past we had a product that no one knew about, and so we needed to educate. And to ensure that folks to make use of your product correctly, to make use of these vegetation correctly, it’s worthwhile to make certain they perceive them and the way they work together with one another.

So gardening with native prairie vegetation, folks can create mini-ecosystems or plant communities, and that’s actually a radical idea as a result of now you’re not simply plunking in a plant like this or a plant like that, however you’re truly utilizing a local ecosystem as your mannequin for a backyard. And so relatively than recreating nature in our personal picture, if you’ll, we’re utilizing nature’s rules to create a mannequin of nature. So relatively than a homocentric backyard, it’s a extra of a nature-centric mannequin. And that basically helps to tell gardeners so far as learn how to use these vegetation and learn how to use them to create low-maintenance, high-quality habitat.

Margaret: And simply to that time that you simply’re making, I imply, once we long-time gardeners, even skilled, skilled gardeners, we might purchase our hostas and our astilbe and our this and that. I simply talked about some shade vegetation, however I may point out solar vegetation, too. We put them down and 30 years later, they’re primarily in the identical place that they was once [laughter]. You realize what I imply? We knew learn how to handle them, we knew what they wanted. We knew when to chop them again. We form of knew the routine. They have been the acquainted palette. And these usually are not essentially.

And as you’re declaring, we’re not simply plunking issues down, “Ooh, look, that’ll look fairly over right here, and it will look fairly over there,” we’re creating communities. And that’s a complete totally different mindset. So I get a number of questions from people who find themselves thrown off by, effectively, how do I make this all work? It’s just a little complicated.

Neil: And it helps to know your vegetation, and plenty of gardeners know their vegetation phenomenally effectively, however they’re simply totally different vegetation. And so what we’re seeing now’s that critical gardeners are attending to know native vegetation and making use of ecological rules in how they design with them, how they handle them, and so forth.

Particularly past simply the usage of the vegetation as one thing aesthetic for human beings, however relatively as a habitat backyard, and what I name a three way partnership with nature, the place we meet nature midway. So we invite nature into our gardens. And relatively than spraying every thing to maintain the bugs off, we truly invite the bugs. As a result of in my backyard or my meadows, if I don’t have holes within the leaves of my vegetation, I’m an utter failure as a gardener as a result of I’m not supporting pollinators, I’m not supporting birds. The bugs that type the inspiration of the meals chain that feed every thing up, they’re going to eat my vegetation, and that’s why half the rationale why these vegetation are there, not only for me, however for all of us.

Margaret: Proper. Perfectionism is just not the objective [laughter]. And a static image, as I stated, I’ve hostas and so they’re nonetheless in the identical place the place I put them, as I stated, and I may have put them there 30 years in the past. And primarily, they’re larger, however they’re nonetheless there. However with let’s say… and possibly we should always inform the distinction between what’s a meadow versus a prairie planting as a result of that’s type of scorching now, is to make a meadow or transition some garden to meadow or to prairie. What’s the distinction out of your ecologist’s viewpoint?

Neil: Between meadow and prairie?

Margaret: Yeah.

Neil: Yeah. Usually within the lexicon, a meadow is seen as a extra cool-season grass, with grasses that come up early in spring, with numerous wildflowers which can be extra predominant within the Jap a part of the US, normally a decrease profile. And a prairie is basically the outline of the Midwestern tall-grass prairie, which was encountered by early French explorers within the seventeenth, 18th centuries. They usually discovered these huge meadows with these tall grasses, and the phrase they used to explain them was prairie, which after all is the French phrase for meadow. However whenever you take a look at the way in which the phrases, the phrases are used now, meadow normally refers to a lower-growing profile, wildflower, meadow. And you may have a brief prairie, however a brief prairie continues to be 1 to five toes tall relying upon the constituents. So it’s nonetheless typically a taller plant neighborhood and typical of the Midwest relatively than the East.

Margaret: So I hear from individuals who transitioned an space to a meadow or a prairie, normally, once more, I’m within the East, so I hear from particularly a number of Easterners and so they say, meadow, “I’ve a brand new meadow backyard or no matter.” “I’m managing my meadow.” And within the third yr, I don’t see my black-eyed Susans. There’s no extra black-eyed Susans. And I cherished my black-eyed Susans,” Rudbeckia hirta [above]. Some members of that neighborhood that they thought was going to remain static, keep like a postcard picture eternally, and it’s evolving, proper? So uh-oh, succession [laughter].

Neil: Precisely, yeah. And let’s take a look at the 2 other ways you need to use these vegetation. You possibly can create a prairie backyard with transplants, the place you possibly can choose long-lived vegetation if you’d like it to be extra static. And that’s why in our e book, we listed flora expectations. We don’t have any annuals in there, however now we have just a few biennials, after all, with a life expectancy of two years. After which short-lived perennials three to 5 years, after which mid-successional perennials 5 to 10 years, after which later successional perennials 10 to twenty, after which lastly the Methuselah vegetation that reside 20, 30, 40, 50 years and longer.

Margaret: I cherished that Neil, I cherished it. I imply, I’ve by no means seen the life expectancy listed in any e book about vegetation. And whenever you did that, and it was like “Baptisia, 20-plus years,” and I used to be like, proper, that factor is anchored within the floor. You realize what I imply? That’s a keeper that’s staying round. It settles down, and it’s there.

Neil: Effectively, I believe that is actually vital for gardeners, so that they know what they’re getting. As you level out, what occurred to my Rudbeckia hirta? Effectively, it’s a biennial, and naturally you’re referring to a seed combine the place being a biennial, it’s simply fairly dominant in a second yr, and it would hold on for one more couple of years, however by the fifth or sixth yr, it’s just about gone due to, as you identified, ecological succession.

And that is actually vital for folks to grasp ecological succession, whereby whenever you seed onto open floor, normally the primary yr it’s all weeds, which you didn’t plant. They’re simply dormant seeds within the soil, and also you management them by preserving every thing mowed again, normally to about 6 inches within the first rising season.

After which you will have biennials that present up in a second yr, just like the black-eyed Susan and weedy biennials. And oftentimes you’ll need to mow these within the second yr. After which the third yr, the extra quickly maturing perennials of the prairie flowers and grasses begin to present up. And by the fifth yr, it’s just about a prairie, if every thing’s going in response to plan.

After which what’s fascinating is the precise variety of complete variety of prairie vegetation normally peaks round yr 12 or 15. After which it begins to drop barely because the early successional and mid-successional perennials give strategy to these longer-lived vegetation that reside 10 to 20-plus years.

So it’s form of disappointing typically whenever you see a few of your favourite vegetation possibly going by the wayside. However with disturbance… and that is actually vital, and disturbance is available in many varieties. There’s ripping the bottom up, there’s animal exercise, however the one we normally use is managed burning.

With managed burning, you’ll be able to form of set succession again and hold what we name gap-phase succession the place you will have open soil the place a few of these different species that may be shorter-lived, can recede and proceed to keep up as a lot variety as potential. So burning is basically an vital side of this. After all, lots of people can’t burn or don’t wish to burn. It’s truly very simple to burn for those who arrange your panorama appropriately. And it’s actually a number of enjoyable as you recognize.

Margaret: There’s a complete part in your e book about it, and once I first met you, you couldn’t wait to carry me and Ken Druse to your own home the place you have been making a prairie. You had a younger prairie backyard in your entrance yard, I believe, and also you needed to point out us a managed burn. And so once more, you instruct learn how to do it within the e book.

Effectively, I like that you simply stated that we may use a few of these vegetation as type of specimens. Lets say, “I’m going to make a mattress of those prairie vegetation, not a neighborhood.” So we may do this and management it extra, however when it’s extra like a meadow or a prairie, the succession goes to take maintain and so forth.

Neil: And whenever you use seeds, it’s going to be an evolutionary course of. However after all, we wish to have these early-successional, mid-successional species. So now we have curiosity in yr 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, and on, however it form of reaches extra of a stasis after about 15 years or so. But it surely’s not dangerous. You continue to have a number of flowers and exquisite grasses, so there’s just a few species that will fall by the wayside over an prolonged time frame.

Margaret: And also you simply stated grasses. And that’s an vital element as a result of simply selecting a complete lot of flowers, a number of forbs, is just not going to do it, is just not going to carry all of it collectively and create that neighborhood, as a result of these have been vegetation which can be accustomed to having partnerships with grasses.

Neil: Sure. And prairies are grasslands, meadows are grasslands, and so you actually can’t have one with out the grass, and those that have tried to plant simply wildflowers. And it may be executed, however it’s just a little trickier for various causes. Primary, it’s the fibrous roots of the grasses that assist to discourage weeds, as a result of they don’t permit any open soil on the floor of the bottom. And in order that’s the place most weeds get established. There are all the time going to be weeds that may blow in and trigger issues, however you’ll significantly scale back that hazard by having enough amount of grass in your meadow or backyard. So that they’re actually form of your weeders. Like I say, make the vegetation do the be just right for you. I don’t wish to go on the market and weed. I’m going to design this backyard or design this prairie seed combine so it’s going to have enough grass in it to maintain weeds out as greatest as potential.

And in addition, for those who’re going to burn a prairie, flower sticks, previous flower sticks don’t burn. You want what we name high quality gasoline—grass—so as to carry a hearth. So for those who don’t have grass in your prairie, it principally gained’t burn. And then you definitely lose that nice administration choice for preserving it very recent and new and looking out good and preserving out weeds and bushes and shrubs, as a result of fireplace is basically the easiest way to maintain out invaders, most invaders. And persons are scared of fireside. Effectively, truly on our web site, I’ve an article below sources and guides, it’s known as “Tips on how to Burn Your Prairie Safely,” and there’s so many recommendations on how to do that.

So I imply, it’s nearly not possible to lose it for those who do it proper. And one actually easy trick is simply earlier than you burn it, simply reduce every thing down and all of the gasoline is on the bottom. As a substitute of getting massive flames, it’s simply creeping alongside the bottom. And so it’s so easy. It’s very easy.

Margaret: I’m sorry that the home wren, by the way in which, outdoors my window—despite the fact that I’ve closed the window, the home wren is insistent on being on this program in the present day, so you possibly can hear him screaming.

Neil: Oh, yeah, that’s good. It’s good to have a accomplice on the present.

Margaret: [Laughter.] A bit of bossy creature. Yeah. So we have been speaking about making this residing mulch in a way by having the element of grasses with the wildflowers, the forbs, and that it makes it extra weed-resistant. The opposite query I get requested so much is when weeds do come by way of, particularly within the early years that I don’t need, ought to I pull them out as a result of then that will open up one other area within the soil? Ought to I pull them out and attempt to do the least opening of soil potential or put one thing on it, like a chunk of cardboard or no matter? Is there any weeding recommendation in any respect for these form of communities?

Neil: Yeah, as soon as once more, you’re speaking a couple of seeded meadow, seeded prairie, proper?

Margaret: Perhaps, yeah.

Neil: O.Ok. Effectively, for those who take a look at it, you must take a look at it strategically, and it’s worthwhile to know your weeds. Actually, once I first began doing this again in 1977, I used to be plantings that somebody had executed on the college the place I went to highschool, and it was a really new planting so all I discovered have been weeds. So I needed to study my weeds first, which truly was very helpful.

As a result of for those who take a look at weeds, you take a look at them because the species that may trigger issues in a grassland, you will have annuals, which present up principally within the first yr and the second yr as effectively. Then you will have biennials. Now we’re speaking about herbaceous vegetation, annuals and biennials. After which you will have perennial grasses, and you’ve got perennial rhizomatous grasses and perennial non-rhizomatous grasses. Then you will have perennial broadleaf weeds, and people are additionally divided into rhizomatous and non-rhizomatous, with the rhizomatous species being the true downside kids, these are those that creep far and wide. Issues like Canada thistle and subject bindweed and horse nettle. These are actual, actual issues, and also you wish to get them out as quickly as you presumably can. Crown vetch, oh, what a horrible plant.

Margaret: We’ve mugwort, and I do know your recommendation for mugwort.

Neil: Oh, mugwort is like, oh, good luck with that.

Margaret: Relocate. Relocate [laughter].

Neil: Yeah, relocate. Recalibrate, sure. It’s so troublesome upon getting a longtime inhabitants of it.

Or what you are able to do is you possibly can kill all of it off. After which right here’s just a little trick. When you’ve got a long-term downside with the seed financial institution, you possibly can kill every thing off with whichever technique you wish to use, whether or not it’s smothering or repeated tilling or herbicide or no matter, till there’s completely none of that perennial weed left and none across the edges the place it could actually creep in. After which you possibly can put 3 inches of recent, clear, topsoil over that which can bury the weed seed financial institution, after which you possibly can seed or plant your vegetation into that recent soil, assuming that it doesn’t have another problematic weeds. So this works on a small space, it’s not going to work on a bigger space.

However when you will have an issue web site with a longterm historical past of actually nasty, thuggish weeds, that is the way you overcome them, by utterly eliminating the weeds after which placing 3 inches of excellent, clear topsoil over that, that won’t have weed seeds. However for those who take a look at this, it’s worthwhile to know who you’re up towards. So so far as pulling weeds within the first yr of a seeded prairie, you by no means pull weeds, as a result of whenever you pull the weeds, you undoubtedly, invariably carry up clumps of soil and there go your prairie seedlings with it. And also you may as effectively go in there and spray it with Roundup. That’s why we hold every thing mowed to six inches, as a result of few, if any of these prairie seedlings are going to develop greater than 6 inches within the first yr.

Within the second yr, if now we have downside weeds with biennials like burdock, candy clovers, wild parsnip, a number of these guys can actually be an issue. So proper after they end blooming, we reduce them right down to 12 inches, which then stops the seed formation course of.

Margaret: Proper, O.Ok.

Neil: And kills the vegetation apart from Queen Anne’s lace, which is an indeterminate bloomer and would require fixed reducing again of the flowers. Then within the third yr…

Margaret: I used to be going to say strategic relying on what plant you’re up towards, you will have a technique. Yeah.

Neil: Precisely. And that data is within the e book, “The Gardener’s Information to Prairie Crops.” It’s additionally on our web site. So there’s a number of sources right here the place folks can get to know these vegetation and what to do. However once more, you must know who you’re up towards and know learn how to strategically management them.

Margaret: Proper, perceive its life historical past and so forth. Yeah.

Neil: Yeah, precisely.

Margaret: So once we did the Instances story, we talked about how despite the fact that everybody nearly coast to coast is aware of purple coneflower, Echinacea purpurea, which by the way isn’t native coast to coast, however I even see it offered in catalogs promoting in California, for goodness sake. However there’s so many in every single place it appears [laughter]. However there’s so many nice prairie natives for the Jap half or two-thirds of the nation, which is I assume roughly talking, a number of them are your specialties, that folks don’t know but. And I believed it will be enjoyable to only take a couple of minutes to name out so we don’t run out of time. Take a couple of minutes to name out some that you simply want you knew higher, as a result of it’s not simply purple coneflower and Rudbeckia, proper? [Above, hybrid coneflowers combining genetics of Echinacea purpurea and E. pallida.]

Neil: Proper. And persons are oriented towards the showy flowers. And let’s not neglect that the English have been planting purple coneflower within the nineteenth century, once we have been plowing up the prairies. In order that plant’s been well-liked for a very long time, simply not right here. However let’s take a look at another vegetation that maybe are just a little extra muted or are good companions for a few of the showier vegetation.

And I actually like a number of the white-flowered vegetation, and white-flowered vegetation additionally significantly good for bees and parasitoid wasps, which assist to manage pests in your backyard. Considered one of my favorites is Culver’s root, Veronicastrum virginicum [top of page]. It’s a stately, elegant plant. It’s about 5 toes tall. It has lovely whorled leaves up the stem and these pure white spires of flowers, completely beautiful plant, and it’ll develop in clay. It’ll develop in moist soil. It doesn’t like dry soil. It’ll develop in full solar, and it’ll develop partly shade. So it’s a fairly versatile plant, so long as you give it a very good backyard soil or perhaps a barely damp soil.

One other nice plant is the rattlesnake grasp, Eryngium yuccifolium [below], beautiful foliage, excellent flowers, which can bloom for a reasonably prolonged time frame. Only a actually fascinating, odd-looking plant, however it has actual character, and it blooms similtaneously prairie blazingstar, Liatris pycnostachya. And you’ve got this lavender-white, great pastel mixture.

That is the place the whites are so great, and it’s fascinating. Individuals consider prairies, oh, it’s all stuffed with yellow flowers, however truly there’s a number of totally different colours. White is the second most typical coloration of prairie flowers.

Margaret: I didn’t know that.

Neil: Yeah, it’s wonderful. And so rattlesnake grasp is also pollinated nearly solely by wasps, together with parasitic wasps. And I had a consumer who had horrible issues with tomato hornworm in his vegetable backyard. He planted a 1,000-square-foot prairie from us with a quarter-pound of prairie combine. And after the rattlesnake grasp began blooming, he stated, “I had no extra issues with tomato hornworms.”

And there’s a parasitic wasp that assaults the tomato hornworm by laying eggs on its again, which then burrow into the caterpillar, the caterpillar stage, and principally eats it from the within out and emerges like “Alien.” So the place do you assume they obtained that concept for the film? From nature. So he says, “My prairie is my pesticide.” And so a number of natural gardeners will use these vegetation to draw parasitic wasps to maintain, hopefully, in lots of instances, to maintain their pests down.

Margaret: And everyone knows… That’s one instance, and never simply with parasitic wasps, however the extra variety, the extra layers of the meals chain are being supported, the extra assist there’s at each stage for any chance.

Neil: Oh, yeah. So true.

Margaret: Yeah. Meals and interventions each can be found.

Neil: So for those who plant a prairie combine with 20, 25, 30 species, you promote them, get 100%. Mom nature’s fairly tough. However I imply, for those who get 70, 80 p.c of that and also you get a large variety of flowers, you’re not simply feeding bugs, you’re additionally feeding birds as a result of they eat the bugs, and plenty of butterflies come. And naturally the bees, the wasps and all people.

And persons are so terrified of wasps, however most wasps, they don’t hassle you. The one wasps you actually have to fret about are yellow jackets. These are the one ones that may assault you if you’re not bothering them. Hornets gained’t hassle you. Mud daubers gained’t hassle you, cicada killers gained’t hassle you until you hassle them. However the yellow jacket, they’d simply as quickly sting as take a look at you. However they typically don’t come to the prairie as a result of they eat doughnuts and hamburgers and soda cans.

Margaret: They go to the mall [laughter].

Neil: They go to the picnic.

Margaret: They go to the mall.

Neil: That’s the place they go, they’re not coming to your prairie. So charge, one other sensible choice are the mountain mints, genus Pycnanthemum. These are simply pollinator havens, and we couldn’t give these away 20 years in the past. Instantly, they’re tremendous well-liked due to the curiosity in pollinators. And so Pycnanthemum is within the mint household, and it’s wonderful at what number of totally different species it attracts.

Margaret: And there’s a number of totally different mountain mints, I believe. I don’t know what number of you carry.

Neil: There’s tons. Pycnanthemum virginianum, Pycnanthemum tenuifolium, Pycnanthemum muticum [above]. All of those are actually good selections for attracting pollinators, and so they’re fairly adaptable species.

Margaret: One of many issues that folks ask me about so much, and I believe we talked about possibly one or two selections within the Instances story, folks need issues which can be low to the bottom, like groundcover-ish issues, as a result of that was what, after all, as gardeners, we have been all hooked on groundcovers, and there’s not as many selections possibly, however there are some. I believe Antennaria, pussytoes is that one [below]?

Neil: That’s an ideal plant for a dry, sandy soil. When you’ve got a patio with sand in between the stones, it’ll develop in there. It stays actually low. It likes no less than a half a day of solar, however it stays very low. It has lovely silvery leaves.

And it truly is dioecious: It has separate female and male vegetation. It’s exhausting to inform the distinction until you stand up shut and private. But it surely sends up these little flower stalks about 4 inches tall and these lovely whitish-green leaves, and so they particularly have these little white hairs to replicate solar as a result of they develop in very dry environments, the place it’s simple to get overheated.

So it’ll develop in super-, super-difficult websites like sandy hillsides and locations like that, or alongside sidewalks, however it doesn’t like clay. So that you wish to have a extremely good-draining soil. However when you will have these spots which can be actual scorching spots, like up towards the south aspect of a home that get simply burned up, it is a nice low-growing plant. And there’s another actually great dry-tolerant prairie vegetation that attain taller heights as effectively for these sorts of troublesome conditions.

Margaret: The final one I wish to ask you about is there’s a petunia, however it’s not a petunia. It’s a Ruellia, I believe.

Neil: Yeah.

Margaret: Yeah. Is it a prairie petunia? Is that what it’s known as? What’s its widespread title?

Neil: Prairie petunia, wild petunia, Ruellia humilis [above].

Margaret: Wild petunia, O.Ok.

Neil: Humilis: low-growing, humble, low-growing. It is a actually lovely plant with only a violet flower. And it has a single faucet root, after which it simply spreads out. It sends out these branches alongside the floor of the soil. It doesn’t get greater than a pair toes tall, so it’s one other actually good groundcover-ish plant. It doesn’t creep and type a floor cowl just like the pussytoes, the place it truly creeps by rhizomes or the wild strawberry [Fragaria virginiana] is one other good one, which creeps by rhizomes and can develop in very troublesome soils, too, very dry soils. And the Ruellia can be tolerant of scorching, dry circumstances. So these are actually good selections if you’d like some low-growing vegetation, particularly in powerful, scorching conditions.

Margaret: Effectively, I’ll embody some hyperlinks to a few of the academic stuff in your web site, as a result of as you stated in the beginning, schooling’s been a extremely vital a part of working with a product that folks didn’t actually, and nonetheless don’t totally, find out about, and are simply studying about. I all the time study so much from you, Neil, even once I’m not at your own home and also you’re not setting your entrance garden on fireplace to terrify me [laughter].

Neil: Effectively, it’s been some time. Margaret. Subsequent spring it is best to come, and we’ll do an anniversary prairie fireplace.

Margaret: O.Ok. Extra trauma [laughter]. Effectively, thanks a lot. Thanks for making time in the present day.

Neil: It’s my pleasure, Margaret.

Margaret: Pull some extra invasives, I’m going to go do the identical. O.Ok.

Neil: All proper. It’s been great. Thanks a lot.

(All images from Prairie Nursery, used with permission.)

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