WHAT’S NOT TO LOVE about zinnias? Natural seed farmer and breeder Don Tipping of Siskiyou Seeds and I each vote an emphatic “sure” in favor of constructing zinnias part of each backyard 12 months.
However what goes into creating the variety of zinnia colours and kinds and sizes? And what are some new wanting ones that you simply would possibly wish to attempt in 2024?
Don Tipping based Siskiyou Seeds, a household run farm-based seed firm, in 1997. His farm with a view is positioned at 2,000 ft of elevation within the Siskiyou Mountains of southwest Oregon, and has near 1,000 forms of greens, herbs, and flowers in its assortment. As if that weren’t sufficient, Don creates a YouTube channel of how-to movies and a long-running weblog, and hosts a number of on-farm trainings for gardeners and farmers every year.
We talked about that beloved annual flower, the zinnia (that’s ‘Queeny Lime Orange,’ above), and extra.
Plus: Remark within the field close to the underside of the web page to enter to win a $25 present certificates for Siskiyou Seeds.
Learn alongside as you take heed to the Feb. 5, 2024 version of my public-radio present and podcast utilizing the participant beneath. You’ll be able to subscribe to all future editions on Apple Podcasts (iTunes) or Spotify (and browse my archive of podcasts right here).
zinnias and extra, with don tipping
Margaret Roach: Winter! However I suppose it’s seed-selling season, so most likely not winter, not quiet, for you.
Don Tipping: Yeah.
Margaret: You and I lately collaborated on a narrative in “The New York Instances,” a backyard column on rising onions and leeks, one thing you taught me find out how to do virtually a decade in the past, find out how to develop them from seed. And so I’ll give a hyperlink to our former dialog, for individuals who wish to get began on these earlybird crops. However zinnias: We share this ardour, as I stated within the introduction, for zinnias, sure?
Don: Yeah, very a lot so. It looks like sort of an apparent factor to love, like having vanilla ice cream be your, or I imply chocolate be your favourite sort of ice cream. However I feel as a result of they’ve a lot potential when it comes to range of flower kinds and colours, I simply preserve coming again to my intrigue with them.
Margaret: Yeah. I imply, I’ve at all times recognized them since I first gardened, and but I by no means knew ones just like the sizes and styles and no matter that I’m seeing today. And so, I discover, I see on some catalog web sites that there are some hybrid zinnias, however all of yours, the entire Siskiyou Seeds’ forms of every part, are open-pollinated, sure?
Don: Appropriate, yeah. And I feel it’s tough; individuals wish to cut back issues down into binaries of open-pollinated or hybrid. However the reality of the matter is, is that populations are consistently hybridizing, and that’s the place Dr. John Navazio taught me: to make use of the time period proprietary F1 hybrids when referring to these business ones. Whereas zinnias, particularly, as a result of they’ve what are referred to as leaping genes [laughter], they’re transposons, the molecular-biologist time period for them. However mainly, that is how epigenetics present up in flowers, of genes that may be turned on or off.
So, it’s actually tough to stabilize a number of the distinctive variants of zinnias. You actually should develop 1000’s of crops to see that one-in-a-thousand particular person. And simply since you save seed from it doesn’t essentially imply that you simply’ve stabilized it and people traits will proceed to specific in subsequent generations.
Margaret: Proper. So, the mum or dad plant, all its infants received’t be similar, any greater than I don’t appear like my mother and father [laughter].
Don: Yeah, precisely.
Margaret: To simplify issues. So, what number of years because you first tinkered with a zinnia, because you let an entire inhabitants develop out in a area someplace at your home and stated, “Ooh, I actually like that one over there. I’m going to save lots of seed from that one.” How way back, do you suppose?
Don: Properly, it was kind of an evolution. We used to develop zinnia seed yearly for Seeds of Change [catalog] in massive portions, the place we’d develop 5 or 10 kilos of seed. And after we are doing that, we’re usually rising a single colour. So something that deviated from that, we might really destroy these crops, pull them out by the roots. So then ultimately, in about 2009, is after I started to understand that, oh, these distinctive ones, that is perhaps one thing price saving seed from and truly starting to nudge it in that course, as a result of similar to my analogy with ice cream, you will get vanilla and chocolate anyplace.
However distinctive sorts, I feel that’s actually the bread and butter for these small regional seed corporations like Siskiyou Seeds—not providing the same old variety, however having distinctive sorts. Yeah, and it retains it fascinating for me, as a result of I’ve been doing this 30 years, so I’ve received to search out new methods to maintain it thrilling.
Margaret: New adventures. First, there have been, many years in the past, I don’t even keep in mind the names of the zinnias, after which the ‘Benary’s Giants’ [above] turned a factor. However currently, these Queeny Lime ones, those with the phrase queen in them-
Margaret: … are simply so attractive, they usually sort of appeared and everyone, lots of people began promoting them. I can’t discover any data on who bred them or the place they started. I see “the breeder” known as simply “the breeder” in varied catalog descriptions in varied locations, however I don’t see who it was [laughter]. So, that’s been kind of one of many newest in ages.
However you’ve gone off in a course; yours, as you described, a few of them appear like “undersea creatures,” and simply a few of them come off kind of cactus-shaped flowers and get even wilder and crazier. Yeah? [Below, a couple of flowers from his ‘Tidepool Mix.’]
Don: Properly, I feel you’re really shining a light-weight on, if you describe a few of these new varieties that present up within the huge mainstream catalogs, on a little bit of the underbelly of the largely Dutch flower-seed commerce. And I can’t confirm this, however I wish to begin wanting and poking round. I’ve heard that they use irradiation to induce polyploidy and novelty in a whole lot of flower variants, as a result of florists are at all times searching for the brand new factor, and genetics tends to throw out the off sorts. The mutants have a tendency to not categorical readily.
However by actually irradiating or doing novel breeding applied sciences like cell fusion and cisgenics, the mainstream business has been tinkering with issues. So, it’s completely different than the standard GMO.
We’re not doing that right here. I’m simply actually combing the fields searching for novelty, and we take little ribbons of surveying tape the place I really use jewellery baggage which might be like breathable mesh.
So, if I’ve a big inhabitants, let’s say 1,000 crops or extra, and I seen a person, zinnias are within the Asteraceae, so that they’re associated to calendula, sunflowers, lettuce, marigolds, chrysanthemum, asters, that sort of factor. And that they extensively open-pollinate, they usually have two varieties of flowers in them. They’ve disc flowers and ray flowers. And for those who’ve ever held calendula seed in your hand, you’ll be able to actually see this, or checked out a zinnia, as an illustration, up shut and see how the disc florets have little yellow flowers that in and of themselves are flowers, which have each female and male flower components and may pollinate themselves or be cross-pollinated. Whereas the ray florets, what we take a look at as petals.
Margaret: Petals, proper.
Don: … are literally showy bracts, to make use of the botanical time period. These don’t have stamens, so that they don’t make pollen, however they’ll obtain pollen. So, if you take a look at the calendula seed, again to that instance, you see what appear like little grey fishhooks, after which bigger buff-colored fishhooks. The little ones are from the disc florets, and the bigger ones are from the ray florets. This differentiation is much less pronounced in zinnias, however for those who rigorously kind out your zinnia seed, you’ll be able to work out which seeds got here from the disc florets-
Don: … whereas people who got here from the ray florets.
Don: So, each time a pollination factor occurs, you’ve got an entire myriad of, it could possibly be self-pollinating. So, I’m explaining this to explain the jewellery bag. Why use that? As a result of then that entire plant is self-pollinated, or that flower, and that’s assuming you bought to it earlier than the florets on the disc opened up. So, it’s a must to exit within the morning—when it’s nonetheless sort of cool out and there’s dew—and search for flowers which might be a bit on the immature facet, after which put the bag over it after which let it mature. You’re drastically decreasing the quantity of viable seed if you do that, however it’s a technique to start to slim down within the course you wish to go.
Margaret: Oh, O.Ok. So, you’re not irradiating, you’re placing jewellery baggage on it.
Margaret: So that you’re making observations and placing ribbons on them and placing jewellery baggage on them [laughter] and so forth, and sort of steering the inhabitants, for those who can, in a course that appeals to you. And the assortment of zinnias that you simply promote within the Siskiyou catalog, I imply, you’ve got some actually enjoyable ones. You do have a kind of Queeny sorts, I neglect which one you’ve got. And one other combine that I’ve at all times preferred, the ‘Jazzy Combine,’ which I feel is so well-named as a result of it’s received such enjoyable kind of colours in it. However you’ve got one which I’ve by no means really grown, referred to as ‘Crimson Spider?’ [below]. Inform us about that one. That’s fairly completely different. It appears like a species plant to me, that one. Have you learnt what I imply? It looks-
Don: Oh, completely.
Margaret: …very previous, back-to-the-roots sort of genetics. Yeah.
Don: Properly, you talked about the ‘Jazzy Combine,’ and that’s really a distinct species from the standard zinnias that individuals develop. So, the standard zinnia that most individuals are accustomed to, the Latin title is Zinnia, the genus, and elegans is the species.
Whereas the genus for the ‘Jazzy Combine’ is Zinnia, as soon as once more, the species title is haageana, so it’s really a distinct species. All of them originated in central Mexico, the place it was mainly a wildflower. And so, the ‘Crimson Spider’ is, I feel, actually extra of a progenitor of contemporary zinnias.
Margaret: Isn’t it like tenuifolia or one thing? It’s like an entire species into itself.
Don: Precisely, yeah. So, the crops are extra diminutive. They solely develop 18 to 24 inches tall. They’re all purple. I’ve by no means seen one other one which’s a distinct colour. They usually don’t are inclined to thrive as a lot right here, and maybe we stay within the mountains, so possibly it’s our cool nights, whereas subtropical central Mexican highlands is a distinct local weather than Oregon. However nonetheless, I like rising them only for their novelty. And the petals are typically thinner, so I feel that’s the place the title spider comes from.
You’ll be able to consider dahlias, that are additionally native to central Mexico. And for those who take a look at the seed-grown varieties, you get to see kind of the parental kinds that gave start to all of the completely different fashionable ones that had been in the end hybrids, after which individuals went to tuber copy.
Margaret: Yeah. You may have some enjoyable with them. I imply, you’ve got, talking of ones which might be within the Zinnia elegans, the extra anticipated species or extra widespread species, you chose from one that individuals might know, the ‘Peppermint Stick,’ to make one that you simply name, I feel ‘Firestarter?’ Is that proper?
Don: Yeah. Properly, this began, Frank Morton and I, we had a dialog of, I simply requested him like, “Hey, the ‘Peppermint Stick’ is 2 completely different colours.” And actually three, there’s kind of yellow and purple, after which white and purple, however there’s additionally kind of a cream and purple in there, which I feel is an middleman one.
Margaret: Yeah, and we must always say Frank is a seed farmer, Wild Backyard Seed. Sure, yeah.
Don: Yeah, thanks for mentioning that. And he’s undoubtedly a pricey pal and mentor of me.
Margaret: And so many.
Don: And an early pioneer.
Margaret: He’s superb. Yeah.
Don: And yeah, test them out earlier than, I feel they’re inching in direction of retirement, so sort of get it whereas the getting’s good. However we had been joking round. I used to be like, “Hey, have you ever ever considered stabilizing one of many colours?” And he was doing the white and purple. So I used to be like, “Properly, I’ll do the yellow and purple.”
So, we use greenhouses generally if we wish to stabilize one thing that’s actually engaging to pollinators, with the pondering that we will management pollination a bit bit extra. So, the ‘Firestarter’ is absolutely simply saving seed from probably the most yellow and purple ones.
And I wish to point out a extremely enjoyable factor, and possibly you’ve seen this in zinnias or different flowers, is that selection particularly tends to provide what are referred to as chimeras. And you can too see leaping genes in motion. So, in my collection of that selection, I await the primary flower to occur, and I solely wish to save the crops that produce yellow-and-red-striped ones, that actually appear like both yellow petals that someone took a paintbrush and painted a stripe of purple on them, or ultimately.
So then, I rip out all those which might be white and purple, after which I lower off all of the flowers of the yellow-red ones, that first flower, as a result of it may have cross pollinated with the white and purple ones. Then, I let all of them flower, and what I’ve seen occur is ones that produce all purple flowers. And earlier than I discovered this, I’d lower these off or rip these crops out. However then, I started to note, like wow, on the identical plant, they’ll produce all purple and yellow-and-red-striped. And what that’s, is the plant doesn’t distribute progress hormones and its genetic potential equally.
Don: Similar to we don’t appear like our siblings, regardless that we technically have the identical genetics. And the opposite factor it’ll do is chimeras, which is, I don’t know if that’s a botanical time period or simply within the flower commerce, one the place the flower is mainly half purple and half one other colour, like on this occasion, red- and yellow-striped. I’ve tried saving seeds from this, however I don’t suppose chimeras is one thing which you could pin down genetically. It simply has to do with progress hormones and transposons, and the way genetic potential is distributed in a given plant relying on environmental stresses.
Margaret: Yeah, it’s fairly cool. So, that’s a enjoyable one, ‘Firestarter.’
A few of yours are these mixes, otherwise you generally name them remixes. You may have one that you simply name the ‘Dreamin’ Remix,’ as an illustration. And that was already a cross of elegans, and haageana.
Margaret: That was already a cross of elegans and haageana, that another person did, at Peace Seedlings, Dylana Kapuler. So that you then take a look at the inhabitants and you retain going, yeah? You would possibly preserve going?
Don: Yeah. And this may’t… Perhaps you might describe it as a backcross, so it’s a hybrid between these two zinnia species, then backcross to the ‘Cactus Combine,’ and making an attempt to get my purpose with that. And I feel gardeners like novelty, and I attempt to be clear in our catalog to not anticipate each plant to exhibit the identical traits. However you’re certain to, it’s sort of like, I don’t know, Cracker Jacks, you’re going to get a distinct shock in each field or one thing.
That my purpose is to provide one that appears just like the ‘Dreamin’ Combine,’ that Dylana took over from her father, Dr. Alan Kapuler, of that cross. They usually’ve by no means disclosed it’s a cross, however I’ve grown sufficient zinnias the place that’s my hunch, due to that trait that you simply see within the ‘Jazzy Combine’ or the ‘Persian Carpet’ sort zinnias.
I wish to get one which has that fascinating sort of bullseye sample of various colours on each petal, however with the quilled petal form of the cactus sorts. So, we’ll see. There’s no assure. I feel generally when you’ve got a breeding goal, it’s really counter to the reproductive success of the plant [laughter], and the one approach you study that’s by trial and error.
Margaret: Yeah. I like the title of 1 that you’ve got your providing that you simply bred, you name it ‘Loopy Legs’ [above]. Inform us about ‘Loopy Legs,’ talking of this kind of cactusy…
Don: Properly, in order that began by rising massive quantities of the ‘Cactus Combine,’ which has a quilled petal form, which the botanical time period would both be revolute, like rolled outwards on itself, or rolled inwards on itself (which is involute).
And I started to note ones that had these different traits. One really has a botanical title referred to as fimbriated, the place the petals don’t finish at a tidy level, however are extra splayed out.
After which I seen one the place the petals themselves, as an alternative of rising straight, had been kind of squiggled. And my preliminary breeder’s title for that was Frippertronics, after Robert Fripp, who was the guitarist for the sort of ’60s, ’70s progressive rock band King Crimson. However my seed workers, who’re all underneath 40 was like, “No, that doesn’t work.”
Margaret: “No, Grandpa.” They stated, “No. Grandpa.” Proper? [Laughter.]
Don: Yeah, completely. Properly, and I take these surveying ribbons and I write with a Sharpie on there simply so I can preserve observe of all these items. So, I used to be like, “O.Ok., you’re going to be Frippertronic,” as a result of he invented the primary digital tape-loop music, simply one thing novel. So, ‘Loopy Legs’ was a extra descriptive title. ‘Loopy Legs’ is a fuchsia one. I’ve cream-colored model in improvement and an orange one in improvement and a yellow one. However these aren’t stabilized but.
Margaret: Properly, they’re enjoyable and wild as is your one I discussed earlier than, the one which kind of appears like undersea anemones, the ‘Tidepool Combine.’
Margaret: So, earlier than we take up on a regular basis with zinnias, I wish to simply ask you about what else are you enthusiastic about for the time being? As a result of it sounds such as you’re nonetheless taking part in with zinnias. Are there different issues that you simply’re…
Don: Properly, yearly we decide three or 4 issues to do selection trials on, and that permits us right here on the farm to essentially use the farm not only for seed manufacturing, but additionally as a analysis and improvement facility. So, those we’re doing for that this 12 months are radicchios, as a result of there’s an entire development beginning there and we simply wish to study as a lot as we will to develop as a lot range. After which we’ll supply that blend as a seed crop for 2025, which feels bizarre to say that.
After which, we’re additionally doing carrots, however just like zinnias, not many individuals develop China asters, however they’re simply as simple to develop and I feel simply as spectacular. And I feel it could possibly be one of many subsequent huge issues for residence gardeners and small-scale farmer-florists.
Margaret: I feel these are, what Callistephus, is that the genus? Callistephus, I feel.
Margaret: Yeah. They usually’re stunning flowers. And talking of issues that may come in several flower kinds, they’ll appear like an enormous double chrysanthemum [below, ‘Tower Chamois’ China aster] or they’ll look ethereal and, I don’t even know find out how to say with simply, I don’t know, simply so effusive, a few of them.
Margaret: So that they actually, they are often fairly completely different.
Don: Yeah. And I’m simply now pondering they might make a superb companion, like some cool variant combine with the ‘Tidepool Combine’ zinnia. And possibly for some future Octopus’ Backyard assortment or one thing.
Margaret: Oh, I like that. The Octopus’s Backyard assortment. Yeah, a number of tentacles [laughter].
Margaret: ‘Loopy Legs.’ Numerous ‘Loopy Legs.’ Yeah. Good. O.Ok. So, these are three issues: radicchio, carrots, China asters.
Don: Yeah. After which, one other factor sort of, just like the zinnias that I’ve been engaged on, is a striped kernel candy corn that I name ‘Starburst Choose.’ And also you see this trait in flour corn, some Native communities name it chin-mark corn, named after the cultural custom of tattooing ladies in a number of the Northwest tribes. However mainly, on the stage of consuming, I’ve this selection in improvement that could be a candy corn, and if you eat it, every kernel appears like someone took a small paintbrush and drew a bit starburst of purple on it.
And I’m 85 p.c of the best way there of getting a range that, so far as I do know, has by no means existed earlier than, and I don’t know why, as a result of it wasn’t that arduous to create. So, that’s thrilling. And we provide seed of that. We at all times promote out. It’s very restricted amount proper now.
Margaret: Huh. Attention-grabbing. You’ve executed quite a bit through the years with flour corns, those as in you’d make meal or flour out of them, not flower corns.
Margaret: Very colourful, a few of them have been very colourful, that are simply stunning as effectively. And I feel it looks like you’ve been including some medicinal herbs to the catalog as effectively, yeah?
Don: Yeah. And as a seed firm, now we have what we’re enthusiastic about, however we even have to reply to the place the tradition goes. And that’s one thing I’ve seen an enormous resurgence in curiosity in individuals rising their very own medicinal herbs. So I’ve an worker who has some expertise with that, Taryn Hunter, who I’ve actually simply tasked with determining what’s the recent herbs to develop, what ought to we be both rising. Or we additionally work with an important firm out of Washington referred to as Buddies of the Bushes Botanicals, and that’s Michael Pilarski who goes by the title Skeeter, who’s one in every of our permaculture elders right here within the Northwest. They usually develop and harvest medicinal herb seed that we provide.
Margaret: Properly, a whole lot of enjoyable selections. As I stated, there’s like 1,000 issues in your assortment and possibly 700 in any given 12 months being supplied. I’m so glad to talk to you; I at all times study from you, Don, and I hope that we’ll preserve the teachings going for extra years to return. So, thanks, thanks, and have a very good seed-selling season, huh
Don: Thanks a lot.
extra from don tipping
enter to win a $25 siskiyou seeds present card
I’LL BUY A $25 present card to Siskiyou Seeds for one fortunate reader. All it’s a must to do to enter is reply this query within the feedback field beneath:
Are zinnias an everyday in your backyard? Any favourite varieties?
No reply, or feeling shy? Simply say one thing like “depend me in” and I’ll, however a reply is even higher. I’ll choose a random winner after entries shut Tuesday Feb. 13, 2024 at midnight. Good luck to all.
favor the podcast model of the present?
MY WEEKLY public-radio present, rated a “top-5 backyard podcast” by “The Guardian” newspaper within the UK, started its 14th 12 months in March 2023. It’s produced at Robin Hood Radio, the smallest NPR station within the nation. Hear domestically within the Hudson Valley (NY)-Berkshires (MA)-Litchfield Hills (CT) Mondays at 8:30 AM Jap, rerun at 8:30 Saturdays. Or play the Feb. 5, 2024 present utilizing the participant close to the highest of this transcript. You’ll be able to subscribe to all future editions on iTunes/Apple Podcasts or Spotify (and browse my archive of podcasts right here).