Find out how to Develop and Take care of Ceanothus (California Lilac)

Ceanothus spp.

I keep in mind the primary time I seen a Ceanothus aka California lilac shrub. I actually did a double take as I used to be strolling my canines on a dismal late winter’s day within the park by my home.

My eye was drawn to this darkish inexperienced shrub coated in otherworldly blue flowers that appeared to glow within the panorama.

A close up horizontal image of the blue flowers of a Ceanothus California lilac growing in the garden.

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Solely later did I uncover that Ceanothus is fast-growing, fixes nitrogen within the soil, and requires hardly any upkeep. I used to be already a convert once I first noticed its spectacular show, however all the remainder doesn’t harm, both.

I instantly added a number of California lilacs to my yard and on the identical time I began noticing them in all places in gardens and parks. So far as I’m involved, there can’t be sufficient Ceanothus on the market.

Whether or not you’re enthusiastic about planting a California lilac of your individual, otherwise you wish to learn to look after a specimen you have already got, that’s what we’ll cowl on this information.

Right here’s what’s developing:

What Is Ceanothus?

Ceanothus are vegetation within the Ceanothus genus, that’s the straightforward half. Many species are generally generally known as California lilac, however not all vegetation on this genus are referred to by this moniker.

They aren’t associated to lilacs, although the flowers bear some resemblance.

A close up vertical image of the purple flowers of a Ceanothus California lilac.

Shops and growers will typically name all vegetation within the Ceanothus genus Californian or California lilac as a result of many species are native to California, together with feltleaf (C. arboreus), Rincon Ridge (C. confusus), hoaryleaf (C. crassifolius), San Diego buckbrush (C. cyaneus), Fresno (C. fresnensis), Santa Barbara (C. impressus), maritime (C. maritimus), hollyleaf (C. purpureus), and blueblossom (C. thyrsiflorus).

Any one of many 50-ish Ceanothus species native to California may simply be referred to as California lilac or blueblossom somewhat than their extra particular frequent names.

There are related species which can be native to japanese North America, however these are typically referred to by completely different frequent names.

For instance, C. americanus grows on the east coast and is named New Jersey tea. C. herbaceus grows throughout japanese North America and goes by the title Jersey tea.

On this information, we’re going to give attention to the Ceanothus species, cultivars, and hybrids that develop on the west coast and are collectively known as California lilacs. These all look related and have related care necessities.

So, what’s to like about these vegetation?

Ceanothus are perennial woody shrubs, small timber, or floor cowl vegetation grown each for the foliage and blossoms. Most species are evergreen, although some are deciduous.

A horizontal image of light blue Ceanothus flowers pictured on a soft focus background.

The vegetation produce dense clusters of small flowers in shades of white, cream, grey, or numerous hues of blue and purple. Nearly all of species have aromatic, honey-scented blossoms.

You will discover sorts that bloom anytime from January by means of September, although the bulk come out proper at the start of spring in March.

After the flowers fade, they’re adopted by inexperienced seed pods that finally mature and dry out to a light-weight brown coloration. As soon as they do, the seeds will burst out of the pods and land far and vast.

I really like vegetation which have this technique of ballistic seed dispersal – Oxalis and Impatiens species even have this dispersal technique and I like to poke the pods and watch them burst. It brings out the child in me.

The leaves of all Ceanothus species are ovate with three parallel veins, however that’s the place the similarities finish.

Relying on the species, the vegetation can have clean (total), dentate, serrate, spiny, or undulate foliage. They are often thick or skinny, giant or small, and clean or wrinkled.

These species that develop in dry areas usually have lengthy thorns and spiny leaves.

California lilacs develop in USDA Hardiness Zones 4 to 11, relying on the species or cultivar, in an enormous vary of environments, from moist sea degree spots to dry mountainsides at 9,000 toes above sea degree.

As a member of the legume household, Ceanothus fixes nitrogen within the soil, like peas and beans.

Birds, butterflies, bees, and different wildlife depend on these vegetation and they’re thought-about a number of the most necessary species for wildlife in lots of areas.

The roots have been used for hundreds of years to make crimson dye, and pure dye makers proceed to make use of them in the present day.

Cultivation and Historical past

The species within the Ceanothus genus hybridize readily in nature, so there are a lot of variations on the market.

They may have flowers of a special coloration or measurement, or could have leaves which can be bigger or smaller than the species, as an example.

There are additionally some enjoyable hybrids which were cultivated over the previous few a long time as extra individuals have begun to understand these vegetation.

California Lilac Propagation

If you happen to dwell on the west coast, you’ll discover California lilacs on the market in all places, from specialty nurseries to massive field shops. Exterior of those areas, you’ll need to hunt a bit more durable.

Or, when you’ve got entry to an current Ceanothus plant, you may propagate a brand new one from seeds or through stem cuttings. If you happen to take seeds or cuttings from a wild plant, make certain it’s protected and authorized to take action.

I point out “protected” as a result of I’ve a good friend who loves to gather specimens for cultivation whereas out mountaineering, and greater than as soon as, she has ventured too near a cliffside, walked by means of poison oak, or forgot to pay attention to her environment whereas attempting to find specimens.

Okay, it’s me. I’m the so-called “good friend.” Don’t be like me.

You possibly can generally buy seeds, however principally, you’ll want to reap them your self from current vegetation. Let’s speak about that first.

From Seed

Seed sowing must be deliberate prematurely. Ceanothus seeds ought to be sown within the spring, however the course of must be began within the fall for the very best possibilities of success.

A close up vertical image of a seed pod developing on a Ceanothus California lilac pictured in bright sunshine.
Photograph by Kristine Lofgren.

You also needs to take into account that it’s extremely unlikely that seed-started vegetation will look precisely just like the dad or mum, whether or not you’re utilizing seeds from a hybrid or a wild plant.

Bear in mind, the vegetation hybridize readily in nature, so that you by no means know what you’ll find yourself with.

After the flowers fade within the spring or summer season, relying on the species, arduous seed pods will begin to kind of their place. As soon as these flip brown and are dry, you may harvest them.

Roll the seed heads in your hand to take away them from the pod. They are often saved in a cool, dry location for as much as a yr earlier than planting.

A close up horizontal image of the dry seed pods of a ceanothus California lilac plant pictured on a soft focus background.

Germination in California lilac seeds is triggered by warmth. The new summer season days and occasional wildfires in California trigger the seeds which have landed within the soil to start the germination course of.

At dwelling, we will replicate this by inserting the seeds in a bowl and pouring boiling water over them. Allow them to sit till the water cools and you may deal with them. Pressure out the seeds.

You don’t need to do the subsequent step, however it would improve germination charges considerably.

After the boiling water remedy, place the seeds in moist peat moss in a sealable bag and toss them within the fridge for 3 months.

You possibly can at all times establish an avid gardener as a result of their deli drawer or butter shelf is stuffed with plastic baggies stuffed with seeds somewhat than meals.

Within the early spring, fill four-inch containers with potting soil, moisten it, and press a number of seeds into the floor of the soil in every pot.

Cowl with plastic and place below develop lights or on a windowsill that receives no less than 4 hours of sunshine. Maintain the soil moist.

As soon as the seeds germinate, take away the plastic cowl and proceed to maintain the soil moist. Take away all however the strongest seedling from every pot so there is only one plant in every container.

When the younger vegetation have reached about two or three inches tall and have a number of leaves, harden them off in preparation for transplanting outdoor.

Do that by inserting the pot outdoor for one hour on the primary day. The subsequent day, add an hour after which convey it again in. Maintain doing this for a full week earlier than transplanting as described beneath.

From Cuttings

If you wish to develop a genetic reproduction of an current Ceanothus plant, propagation through stem cuttings is the way in which to go.

Softwood cuttings taken in spring are the best to root, however it’s also possible to take hardwood cuttings within the fall. Some species solely have hardwood, so that you’ll need to work with what you will have.

You should definitely take your cuttings on a chilly day within the early morning and select vegetation that look wholesome and aren’t confused.

If the plant has pliable, simply bendable wooden, take a six- to eight-inch chopping from the tip of the department and place the minimize finish in water to maintain it moist whilst you take different cuttings or put together your pots.

To take a hardwood chopping, choose a small stem with a number of lateral shoots which can be no less than six inches lengthy.

It doesn’t matter how lengthy the principle stem is as long as it has a number of lateral shoots popping out of it.

Select a healthy-looking lateral shoot that’s no less than six inches lengthy and minimize the principle department a half inch on both facet of the lateral development.

Try to be left with a T-shaped chopping.

The rationale we do it is because the principle stem is comprised of older wooden than the laterals and that older development has extra of the hormones essential to develop new development than is contained within the lateral stem.

Place this in water as you’re employed.

Whenever you’re able to plant, take away all however the high two or three leaves, relying on how giant the leaves are. For terribly giant leaves, you may wish to take away all however one and minimize that remaining one in half laterally.

Eradicating the leaves exposes nodes that may ship out roots, and it reduces the quantity of aboveground development that the chopping must assist because it places its vitality into creating roots.

Fill a clear container with perlite or potting soil. Any well-draining, small container will work, whether or not you employ outdated plastic cups, new four-inch containers, or pre-used six-packs that your summer season annuals got here in.

The necessary factor is that they’re cleaned with soapy water and sterilized by wiping them with isopropyl alcohol earlier than use.

Make small holes within the potting medium and insert every chopping two to 3 inches deep, or 1 / 4 of its size.

Cowl with plastic to retain moisture because the roots develop. If you happen to use a plastic bag, which is okay, take care to prop it up so it’s not touching the chopping utilizing sticks or chopsticks or one thing related. In any other case, use a cloche or plastic bottle.

Maintain the soil moist and set the cuttings both indoors in a spot with brilliant, oblique mild or outdoor in a protected space, although you must convey them indoors if the temperatures drop beneath 35°F.

When you see roots popping out of the drainage holes, it’s time to transplant.


Whether or not you’ve grown your individual seedlings or cuttings, otherwise you buy a starter plant at a nursery, the planting course of is identical.

There’s no must dig and backfill a large gap. Simply dig a gap a bit wider and simply as deep as the present container the plant is rising in. Take away the plant from the pot and loosen up the roots in the event that they’ve turn into a bit tangled.

Set the plant within the gap and fill in across the roots. Water effectively and add extra soil if it settles.

Find out how to Develop Ceanothus

Not everyone seems to be fortunate sufficient to have the ability to develop California lilacs. They want cool summers and gentle winters like that of their native coastal California and southern Oregon dwelling.

However even these with out the proper local weather could be profitable, however there may be one factor that’s completely important: good drainage.

In case your soil doesn’t drain effectively, I encourage you to not develop Ceanothus. They gained’t survive.

A horizontal image of a potted ceanothus growing on a patio outdoors.

Assuming you will have well-draining soil, the subsequent consideration is solar.

Most Ceanothus species do greatest in full solar and that’s the place you’ll see the very best flowering. However in sizzling areas, the plant will profit from some shade within the hottest a part of the afternoon.

That is very true of species which can be discovered rising wild alongside the coast somewhat than inland. Inland sorts can tolerate afternoon warmth.

Many are extraordinarily drought tolerant, requiring little to no extra water.

Within the fall, winter, and spring, nature normally offers sufficient moisture, but when the soil utterly dries out, go forward and add a bit of water. In the summertime, don’t add moisture in any respect.

Most Ceanothus species are tailored to thrive in utterly dry summers, and added moisture will really hurt them.

Some species want a bit extra moisture and this shall be famous on the rising card. In these instances, they could want supplemental water within the warmth of summer season when the soil dries out utterly.

Species that develop indigenously alongside the coast want extra water than these which can be discovered inland.

Overwatering is much worse than underwatering.

Don’t hassle feeding your California lilac, both. Bear in mind, these vegetation repair nitrogen within the soil, so in case you add fertilizer that incorporates nitrogen, you’re simply including nitrogen on high of nitrogen.

On high of that, they’re tailored to develop in depleted soils. Something sandy, loamy, or rocky will do, offered it drains effectively and has a pH between 5.5 and eight.5.

The ethical of the story is that this plant does greatest if you neglect it.

You’ll generally see Ceanothus described as short-lived, nevertheless it doesn’t need to be. These which can be overwatered, overfed, or grown in an excessive amount of shade could have a brief lifespan, however well-cared-for vegetation can dwell 15 years or extra.

Rising Suggestions

  • Plant in full solar, although some want safety from the afternoon warmth.
  • Be sure that soil has glorious drainage.
  • Most require no extra irrigation, particularly in the summertime.

Pruning and Upkeep

California lilacs don’t like being pruned or moved, and I can inform you this from expertise.

I’ve began a number of from cuttings and had them rising effectively within the backyard. However once I moved houses and tried to take the vegetation with me, they died a month or so after transplanting.

A close up horizontal image of the inflorescence of a California lilac pictured on a soft focus background.

As soon as the vegetation are in place, do your greatest to not transfer them. If you happen to should, do it on a cool day within the spring and attempt to take as a lot of the foundation system as you may.

In terms of pruning, attempt to keep away from trimming as a lot as you may. In fact, you must at all times take away lifeless, diseased, deformed, or dying branches everytime you see them.

In any other case, take into account that woody species solely produce development on the ends of branches. If you happen to reduce into outdated wooden, the department gained’t ship out any new development, and also you’ll be left with a lifeless stump.

Take away spent development on the inside of the plant and snip off any decrease limbs that drag on the bottom.

Species and Cultivars to Choose

A couple of a long time in the past, you have been fortunate in case you might discover one or two completely different Ceanothus sorts out there in specialty nurseries.

However gardeners have began to essentially recognize these attractive shrubs, and as such, there are extra choices than ever earlier than.


All California lilacs could be known as “blueblossom,” however C. thyrsiflorus is the species typically given this frequent title.

Blueblossom or blue blossom holds a particular place in my coronary heart as a result of it’s indigenous to my area, Oregon, and I’ve one rising within the hell strip in my yard.

It grows giant, as much as 20 toes tall and vast, producing vivid blue-purple blossoms from mid-spring by means of early summer season in Zones 5 to 9.

When it’s in bloom, your complete plant is so densely robed in blossoms you could barely even spot the stems and leaves beneath. You need to see it to imagine it.

Give this Ceanothus species some shade within the afternoon in case you dwell someplace with sizzling summers – and watch the pollinators have a subject day.


The darkish blue flowers of low-growing ‘Centennial’ make for a carpet of coloration within the spring and once more in the summertime.

The remainder of the time, the plant is blanketed in darkish inexperienced, shiny leaves. It grows about 12 inches tall and spreads as much as eight toes, so one plant can sort out a big space.

A horizontal image of a California lilac in full bloom pictured in bright sunshine on a soft focus background.

It even blooms effectively partially shade in Zones 7 to 9. Although ‘Centennial’ doesn’t do effectively in sizzling climates, it’s extra warmth tolerant than a lot of its kinfolk.

‘Centennial’ is a naturally occurring hybrid between C. foliosos and C. thyrsiflorus var. griseus that breeders have cultivated to create an ideal evergreen floor cowl plant.


‘Concha’ was one of many first Ceanothus cultivars to hit the market within the US.

It began as a naturally occurring hybrid between C. impressus and C. papillosus var. roweanus, and options reddish purple buds that open into blue blossoms in late spring on an eight-foot-tall, 12-foot-wide bush. It grows a bit smaller in hotter climates.

A close up square image of the flowers and foliage of Ceanothus 'Concha' growing in the garden pictured on a soft focus background.


It was first launched in 1946 and has remained in style for its potential to face up to poor soil, salt, alkaline soil, and full solar even within the warmth. It’s additionally adaptable to various moisture ranges.

You will discover ‘Concha’ out there at Nature Hills Nursery in #1 containers.

Darkish Star

That is the shrub that knocked my socks off and launched me to the Ceanothus genus.

‘Darkish Star’ has placing royal blue blossoms that smother the eight-foot-tall bush from late winter by means of early spring.

The aromatic flowers are held above almost black leaves which have a crinkled texture.

A horizontal image of a California lilac in full bloom with deep blue flowers.

The plant has a compact pyramidal form and is hardy in Zones 7 to 10.

Launched in 1971 by Ken Taylor who found the seedling in his backyard in Aroma, California, this hybrid of C. x impressus and C. papillosus var. roweanus gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Backyard Benefit in 2002.

Joyce Coulter

For a low-growing hedge choice, ‘Joyce Coulter’ is a superb alternative. It grows as much as 4 toes tall and ten toes vast, although it will probably fluctuate in both route by a number of toes.

It’s a hybrid of C. papillosus var. roweanus and sure C. impressus (or possibly C. thyrsiflorus var. griseus), found by breeder John E. Coulter, who named it for his spouse, and launched by the Saratoga Horticultural Basis in 1956.

‘Joyce Coulter’ is extraordinarily tolerant of nearly any soil sort you may toss at it, from clay to sand, and even a little bit of salt. It’s additionally drought-tolerant.

A square image of Ceanothus 'Joyce Coulter' California lilac growing over a stone wall in bright sunshine.

‘Joyce Coulter’

This prolific bloomer produces medium blue, closely aromatic flower spikes and can tolerate pruning higher than many others.

You will discover ‘Joyce Coulter’ out there from Quick Rising Timber.

Marie Bleu

Marie Bleu is a cross between C. herbaceus and C. × delilianus, typically listed as C. × pallidus ‘Minmari.’

It’s semi-evergreen and completely petite at 4 toes tall and three toes vast. Lined in pale blue flowers in the summertime, the crimson seed heads that comply with lengthen the present in Zones 6 to 9.

The rounded, neat plant is ideal for rock gardens or low borders alongside a walkway.

Mix it with drought-loving grasses like fountain grass (Pennisetum) or cotton sweet grass (Muhlenbergia capillaris).

Level Reyes

Guess the place this California lilac grows? Endemic to the Level Reyes space close to San Francisco, C. gloriosus has a spreading behavior that grows as much as six toes vast and three toes tall.

It grows effectively in Zones 7 to 10.

A close up square image of a bright blue Ceanothus gloriosus flower pictured on a soft focus background.

‘Port Reyes’

This species is extraordinarily in style as a floor cowl because of its dense development, shiny inexperienced leaves, pinkish-red buds, and the lilac-to-deep-blue flowers that carpet the plant all spring. 

Nature Hills carries this Ceanothus species in #1 containers if it sounds good in your house.

Ray Hartman

One of many bigger Ceanothus cultivars, rising as much as 20 toes tall and vast, ‘Ray Hartman’ wows not solely with its measurement however with the rose-colored buds adopted by deep blue-violet blossoms.

With cautious pruning when it’s younger, you may prepare this cultivar right into a tree form for an much more dramatic point of interest.

This hybrid between C. arboreus and C. griseus, created by breeder and founding father of the Saratoga Horticultural Basis Ray Hartman within the Nineteen Forties, is extraordinarily adaptable and can even tolerate a little bit of clay, in addition to some overwatering, drought, and full solar, even in sizzling areas.

A close up square image of a 'Ray Hartman' California lilac growing in the garden in full bloom.

‘Ray Hartman’

It’s appropriate for cultivation in Zones 9 and 10.

You will discover ‘Ray Hartman’ out there at Nature Hills in #1 containers.


This C. thyrsiflorus and C. velutinus hybrid grows as much as 4 toes tall and 6 toes vast, making it a pleasant choice for a smaller space.

It tolerates partial shade and desires no extra irrigation, even in dry climates.

A square image of the flowers of a 'Skylark' California lilac growing in the garden pictured in bright sunshine.


The deep blue blossoms that seem in spring and once more within the fall make it really worthy of the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Backyard Benefit, which it nabbed in 2002.

And it doesn’t simply produce a number of handful of blossoms, the shrub is completely blanketed in them.

Nature Hills has this floriferous fantasy in #5 containers for these residing in Zones 7 to 10.


C. impressus ‘Victoria’ is likely one of the hottest vegetation within the genus, and there’s no query why.

The shiny inexperienced leaves on the ten-foot-tall and vast shrub are placing on their very own, however when the indigo purple flowers be a part of them within the late spring, it makes for fairly the present in Zones 7 to 10.

A close up square image of a single purple flower of a 'Victoria' Ceanothus growing in the garden.


‘Victoria’ can be one of many extra adaptable choices, it tolerates pruning effectively sufficient you could form it right into a hedge and trim it annually.

Go to Nature Hills Nursery to seek out one in your backyard.

Yankee Level

C. thyrsiflorus var. griseus ‘Yankee Level’ is extraordinarily in style as a low-growing choice.

It grows about three toes tall and ten toes vast at most, although it would develop taller in case you restrict its width by means of pruning.

The sapphire blue flowers explode like fireworks everywhere in the bush beginning in mid-spring and final by means of early summer season.

A square image of a Ceanothus 'Yankee Point' growing outside a brick residence.

‘Yankee Level’

‘Yankee Level’ is extremely drought tolerant nevertheless it’s not snug in colder climates. Hardy in Zones 8 to 11.

You will discover ‘Yankee Level’ vegetation out there from Quick Rising Timber.

Managing Pests and Illness

As long as you don’t plant in poorly draining soil or overwater the vegetation, Ceanothus have just about no issues in any respect.

In waterlogged soil, the California lilac won’t die instantly, however its lifespan shall be shortened.

You’ll generally see California lilacs described as deer-resistant. I believe that comes from the truth that some Ceanothus species have lengthy thorns and spiky leaves.

These vegetation developed their sharp bits particularly to discourage deer, and these sorts are actually deer-resistant.

However the spiky species are hardly ever cultivated in dwelling gardens. These you discover at plant nurseries are usually the coastal species that lack spikes and thorns.

Deer love these, they usually depend on them as a supply of protein and calcium, notably within the winter.

Within the case of a bigger plant, a little bit of feeding isn’t normally an excessive amount of of an issue, however younger specimens could be destroyed in a single day.

Cage or fence off younger vegetation till they’re giant sufficient to face up to searching. Most attain their mature measurement inside 5 years.

Oystershell scale (Lepidosaphes ulmi) will benefit from confused vegetation, and if the numbers of those sapsuckers construct up sufficient, the branches and leaves can flip yellow or brown.

Wholesome vegetation are normally nice, however in case you discover your plant has an infestation, take a day to scrape off all the dimensions you’ll find and drown them in soapy water. Do that day-after-day for per week.

Be taught extra about the way to handle scale in our information.

The vegetation within the Ceanothus genus are prone to Armillaria mellea fungus, notably these grown in poorly-draining soil or these which can be overwatered.

If you happen to see brown mushrooms clustered on the base of the California lilac, it’s solely doable your plant is contaminated.

There aren’t any efficient cures for honey fungus, as this illness can be identified, so keep away from an infection by planting in well-draining soil and taking care by no means to overwater.

Finest Makes use of for California Lilac

Relying on which species or cultivar you’re rising, Ceanothus is right as a floor cowl, in mass planting, as a hedge, a specimen, in borders, or as a background plant.

A horizontal image of a large California lilac growing as a hedge.

There are even a number of you could prepare right into a tree form if that pursuits you. 

If you happen to’re searching for good companions in your California lilac vegetation, contemplate decorative grasses, lamb’s ears, lavender, sage, and sedum.

Fast Reference Rising Information

Plant Kind: Woody flowering shrub Flower/Foliage Colour: Blue, pink, purple, white / inexperienced
Native to: North America Upkeep: Low
Hardiness (USDA Zones): 4-11 Tolerance Drought, salt, sand
Bloom Time: Winter, spring, summer season, relying on species Soil Kind: Sandy, rocky, free, loamy
Publicity: Full solar Soil pH: 5.5-8.5
Time to Maturity: 5 years Soil Drainage: Nicely-draining
Spacing: toes, relying on selection Attracts: Pollinators, deer
Planting Depth: Floor sow (seeds), identical depth as rising container (transplants) Companion Planting: Grasses, lamb’s ears, lavender, sage, sedum
Peak: As much as 20 toes Makes use of: Floor cowl, mass planting, hedge, specimen, borders
Unfold: As much as 20 toes Order: Rosales
Progress Fee: Quick Household: Rhamnaceae
Water Wants: Low Genus: Ceanothus
Frequent Pests and Ailments: Deer, scale; armillaria Species: Arboreus, confusus, crassifolius, cyaneus, foliosos, fresnensis, herbaceus, impressus, maritimus, papillosus, purpureus, thyrsiflorus, velutinus

Lilacs Ain’t Acquired Nothing on Ceanothus

California lilacs give greater than they take.

They add nitrogen to the soil somewhat than taking it out, provide you with a dramatic floral present with none pruning required, they usually appeal to pollinators to the yard.

All with none fussing in your half.

A close up horizontal image of a bee feeding from California lilac flowers pictured on a soft focus background.

Are you rising California lilacs? Tell us within the feedback part beneath!

And for extra details about rising shrubs in your backyard, have a learn of those guides subsequent:

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