Hello welcome to Taiga Bonsai, on this article we have a look at the ‘traditional’ bonsai types. Over the centuries new types have developed whether or not these could be classed as ‘classical’ is open to debate.
Introduction – bonsai types are usually categorized by totally different standards, these embrace: Trunk orientation, Trunk and bark floor, Trunk and root placement and A number of trunk codecs. Inside these classes every specific type has its personal descriptive terminology.
To many, committing this to reminiscence could seem a slightly daunting prospect. Nevertheless, this text will try and simplify issues by explaining the descriptive terminology mostly used.
Trunk orientation – the terminology used to explain a tree’s orientation is predicated on the connection between its apex and trunk for instance. If a tree’s apex is instantly consistent with its trunk, these are known as ‘Up-right types’.
A tree with a straight trunk is designated as a ‘Formal up-right’ – Chokkan. A curved trunk with its apex in direct line turns into an ‘Casual-Up-right’ – Moyogi. Ought to the tree’s apex be to at least one aspect of the trunk’s major centre, it’s known as ‘Slanted’ – Shakan.
Bushes which have their branches oriented under the purpose the place the trunk disappears into the soil, are referred to as ‘Semi cascades’ – Han kengai and ‘Full cascades’ – Kengai. Different types for instance, an ‘Upright’ with many branches radiating in all instructions known as a ‘Broom type’ – Hokidachi and a tree having ‘Two trunks’ can be known as Sokan as supported by the next pictures
To provide additional clarification, we are going to have a look at these types in additional element.
‘Formal upright’ – Chokkan – has a straight upright trunk tapering to some extent. Its branches are thickest and broad in the direction of the bottom of the trunk, however diminishing in size and thickness as they progress in the direction of the apex. This offers the looks of a triangular perspective when seen as well as, the tree’s roots referred to as Nebari must be seen.
‘Casual upright’ – Moyogi, takichi – is just like the formal upright in type, the one noticeable distinction is that the trunk is curved. Department configuration could incorporate seen curves to intensify the trunk’s motion and are discovered solely on the surface of a trunk’s curve, by no means on the within. Nevertheless, evenly spaced branches could also be tough to align due to the irregularity of the trunk’s form.
‘Slanting’ – Shakan – provides the looks of a proper upright, however angles away. The slant could be mild or pronounced with the apex both to the left or proper. For instance, if a tree is slanting to the appropriate from the viewer’s perspective, the branches on the left can be extra outstanding. The explanation for that is to provide the tree steadiness and to get rid of the impression that it’s about to fall over.
‘Cascade’ – Kengai – a design to imitate timber that develop on the banks of rivers, rocky crevices or outcrops. The trunk near soil stage usually has a right away curve, which in some instances could be extreme relying on the species. The apex of a full cascade type is generally under the bottom of the container and to intensify the type, these specimens are normally present in tall containers.
‘Semi cascade’ – Han-kengai – this design is just like the complete cascade, the one main distinction is that the apex of the tree is both simply above or simply under the rim of the container. It shouldn’t exceed these parameters, in any other case it’s neither a semi or full cascade.
‘Multi trunk cascade’ – Takan-kengai – a method that applies to any cascade design the place two or extra trunks cascade downward.
Trunk and bark floor – comprise numerous descriptions referring to a trunk’s form and its bark texture for instance. A twisted trunk known as Nebikan, a tree containing a vertical break up or hole is Sabamiki and a tree with a gap in its trunk known as Uro discovered extra on deciduous timber than conifers.
The lifeless wooden types establish timber with outstanding lifeless branches or trunk scarring and are widespread to conifers than deciduous. A tree that has had a part of its bark faraway from the trunk is known as Shari and a tree that has had all of its foliage and bark faraway from some branches is called Jin. The next pictures help these descriptions.
To provide additional clarification, we are going to have a look at these types in additional element.
Nebikan– this specific twisted trunk type could be present in each coniferous and deciduous species. It is ready to current to the viewer the looks of age. The strategy of trunk shaping and the quantity largely depends upon the species, however must be accomplished steadily because the tree has to recuperate. As well as, the department and trunk configuration integrated within the design need to be in steadiness.
Sabamiki – is a ‘hollowed’ or ‘break up trunk giving the visible impact of lightning harm weathered over time. The approach entails eradicating the bark from the trunk and carving out the wooden to supply a deep wound.
The hollowed space can begin on the base of the trunk ending half approach up tapering as much as a closure or in reverse. However in making use of this method, care have to be taken to not interrupt the movement of vitamins within the tree, or the above branches will die. When the work is accomplished, all uncovered wooden is handled with a preservative.
Uro – could be utilized to all bonsai, however is generally discovered on deciduous timber the place a department has both died or been eliminated leaving an indentation or scar. Such a wound takes time to heal with no assure that the top end result will look ascetic. Subsequently, generally the wound is ‘hollowed’, which may add character to the tree. Outdated collected bonsai species could have Uro on account of broken from the weather and from grazing animals.
Shari – is deadwood on the principle trunk of the tree normally working vertically on or close to the entrance with the intention to be seen. This shallow wound reveals the ‘non-living’ portion of the trunk, however continues to be surrounded by residing bark.
Shari in pure circumstances could be brought on by a department being ripped off by a lightning strike stripping the bark from the trunk under, or harm from one other exterior supply. If the quantity of harm is extreme together with different lifeless branches the tree is classed within the sharamiki or driftwood type, resulting from its silvery, weathered driftwood look.
Jin – is used on branches and or the highest most a part of the trunk and meant to depict age. Jins in nature are fashioned as a result of the tree has needed to battle to outlive in harsh circumstances for instance, excessive temperatures, lightning and wind.
Creating Jin on the highest most a part of the trunk can provide the phantasm of a shorter tree and assists in distributing extra vitality to decrease branches. These are inclined to develop extra rapidly and assist improve the trunk’s diameter, reinforcing the phantasm of age. When utilized to branches, the Jin approach will increase the phantasm of age.
Earlier than we conclude half I, there may be one other type on this within the driftwood class, which is referred to as Tanuki. However this method isn’t presently accepted as a part of the Japanese bonsai custom and wouldn’t be displayed at a proper Japanese bonsai present.
Nonetheless, many bonsai growers exterior Japan contemplate tanuki as a suitable approach. Arguably, the principle the reason why it’s employed is as a result of, (a) creating Shari and Jin on ‘stay’ specimens takes appreciable time and endurance – one mistake can lead to the lack of the tree.
(b) Acquiring a pure driftwood type bonsai is uncommon and may an proprietor have one on the market, then a wealthy aunt or a lottery wind fall will surely assist. But when these sources are fruitless, be ready to take out a second mortgage. Therefore the rationale why Tanuki is an alternate answer, as a result of it reduces the quantity of years to supply a bonsai specimen within the conventional approach and expenditure is minimized.
Tanuki is the Japanese phrase for Raccoon canine (or Badger as some within the west want to name it) and this animal in Japanese folklore is liable for enjoying methods on individuals, so when a tanuki is concerned, nothing is kind of what it seems.
The Tanuki approach is the wedding of a residing tree affixed to a attention-grabbing piece of deadwood (typically from a wholly totally different species) with the concept of making a driftwood type composition. A method referred to as ‘Phoenix Grafts’ (after the mythological Phoenix, which arose from its personal ashes)
The mix of stay and lifeless wooden was normally restricted to coniferous varieties leading to some stunning and efficient shows. However now could be a standard apply with deciduous varieties.
Nonetheless, combining stay and lifeless wooden isn’t that straightforward to perform if one needs the ultimate consequence to have a pure look. The 2 widespread approaches of how this method could be completed is, (a) by floor fixation and (b) insertion technique.
Floor fixation – could be thought-about as a faster technique of accomplishment, as a result of the ‘stay’ specimen is affixed instantly on to the deadwood held by screws or by wire. However the end result at greatest is ascetically poor, as a result of (a) the injuries created by the fixings though will ultimately heal will nonetheless be seen as callouses.
Moreover, the screws used until of a non-corrosive materials can impact the well being of the tree. (b) Utilizing wire will go away indentations within the ‘stay’ wooden, which could be tough to disguise. As well as, to make the ‘stay’ wooden adhere to the deadwood, a small sliver of bark (relying on the trunk thickness and species) must be eliminated on each side of the ‘stay’ wooden in order that new progress will ultimately roll over making a bond between ‘stay’ and ‘lifeless’ wooden.
Insertion technique – requires a extra delicate strategy because it entails the usage of extraordinarily sharp carving and or energy instruments and one slip can lead to disaster.
As soon as a ‘lifeless’ wooden candidate has been chosen, it must be handled to take away any decaying materials and micro organism probably dangerous to the ‘stay’ wooden companion. The deadwood within the pictures under was boiled for about 20 minutes, allowed to dry then handled with preserver and left for two years.
Having decided which might be the entrance of the deadwood, the girth of the ‘stay’ specimen’s trunk was measured. A channel was lower into the rear utilizing a ‘key-hole’ strategy. Which means that the channel contained in the opening was widened additional.
The explanation for this strategy is that after the ‘stay’ wooden is inserted, it could be allowed to develop locking itself throughout the channel. Because the ‘stay’ wooden develops, its trunk will ultimately fill the channel making a uniformed bond with it’s host. When totally developed, a sliver of bark (2-4mm) on each side of the ‘stay’ wooden can be eliminated for the bark to roll over permitting adhesion to happen.
As this can be a comparatively small tree, (roughly 25 – 35cm) its trunk isn’t any thicker than a normal pencil. But it surely needed to be made pliable by bending gently backwards and forwards so it might be manipulated into the channel.
Utilizing screws due to potential harm was not an possibility. The answer was to maintain the ‘stay’ wooden in situ by binding raffia round each woods at strategic factors taking care to not cowl any nodes that may become branches. The picture under reveals the mixture of a ficus ginseng with its deadwood host. (Work undertaken 27/02/2016)
To some the strategy used on this experimentation is probably not to everybody’s style, some want to make use of screws or wire to safe their ‘stay’ and ‘lifeless’ wooden bonsai potential/s.
However as said the argument from this attitude is that such securing strategies go away undesirable scaring and could be dangerous, detrimental to the well being of the tree, one thing to keep away from. Partially 2 we proceed the dialogue on bonsai types and measurement, till then, BW, N.